Who is blamed for bringing sin into the world?


There are three involved in this matter. First is the one called Day star (the devil), both he and one third of the angels who rebelled were the only ones that were sinful. The Devil who was already fallen tempted Eve in the garden.

After Eve listened to the devil and obeyed his offer to eat from the trees forbidden fruit that would give her wisdom, she gave the fruit to her husband and he also participated in the disobedience of the command not to eat of the tree. So was it Eve or Adam that is to be blamed?

God said to Adam He said, “Because you have heeded the voice of your wife, and have eaten from the tree of which I commanded you, saying, ‘You shall not eat of it’ (Gen. 3:17). God looked to Adam because he gave the command directly to him and Eve was taken from Adam.

The first mention of the word sin is in Gen. 4:7. Cains offering is not accepted and he is told by the Lord “If you do well, will you not be accepted? And if you do not do well, sin lies at the door. And its desire is for you, but you should rule over it.”

We see this image of sin first mentioned in Gen. 5:3 Adam lived one hundred and thirty years, and begot a son in his own likeness, after his image, and named him Seth.” The meaning of “after the image of man” isthat the lineage of Adam is permanently in a fallen state that will affect all born.

Sin – Hebrew chatta’ah an offence (sometimes habitual sinfulness), and its penalty, occasion, sacrifice, or expiation; also (concretely) an offender: (Strongs concordance)

1 Tim. 2:13-14 “Adam was formed first, then Eve. And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived, fell into transgression.” Eve sinned by listening to this foreign intruder and was deceived in disobeying, but Adam listened to his wife and willingly disobeyed.

God puts the continuance of sin on Adam.

Rom. 5:12 “Therefore, just as through one man sin entered the world, and death through sin, and thus death spread to all men, because all sinned” V.17 “For if by the one man’s offense death reigned through the one”

V. 19 “For as by one man’s disobedience many were made sinners.”

When the fall occurred the holiness that was to be passed on was annulled, the image of God was marred. Thus the transmission of life passed down from each generation now gives each person a sinful nature.

Rom 5:14 “Nevertheless death reigned from Adam to Moses, even over those who had not sinned according to the likeness of the transgression of Adam, (1 Cor. 15:22 For as in Adam all die).

This is why the sin nature is present at birth in every person throughout history (except one, Jesus born of a virgin (without a mans seed, who was conceived by the supernatural act of God by the Holy Spirit).

Adam and Eve after their sin HID from God, Genesis 3:8. this is now inbred in all man, who is born separate from their maker. Isaiah 53:6 “All like sheep have gone astray; we have turned, every one, to his own way.” Man naturally strays, wanders from God.

Romans 3:11 “There are none, no not one, that seeks after God.” The Word of God says we go in every direction but toward God.

John 3:19 (Jesus said) “This is the condemnation, that light is come into the world (Jesus is the light of the world), but men loved darkness rather than the light because their deeds were evil.” The darkness represents a condition which possesses no light. Man desires to be autonomous, free from any thought of God and be responsible. The light is the truth that comes into the world.

Jeremiah 17:9 “The heart is deceitful above all things and desperately wicked, who can know it?” Man has a bad heart. If we can’t know our own hearts, how can we expect to know the true and living God.

We are all born sinful and are called sons of disobedience.

Eph 2:2; Eph 5:6; Col 3:6 the wrath of God is coming upon the sons of disobedience.

John 3:3 Jesus spoke “Most assuredly, I say to you, unless one is born again, he cannot see the kingdom of God.” Only those from the second birth (a spiritual one) will escape the judgment, this solution is offered to all.

Job 14:4-5 “Who can bring a clean thing out of an unclean? No one! Since his days are determined, the number of his months is with You; you have appointed his limits, so that he cannot pass.”

Solomon who was the wisest man of his time said in Eccl. 9:3 “Truly the hearts of the sons of men are full of evil; madness is in their hearts while they live.”

From the new spiritual birth1 Peter 1:23 explains having been born again, not of corruptible seed but incorruptible, through the word of God which lives and abides forever.” Gods word brings a new life as the Holy Spirit works to give light, truth. I Jn. 2:29 “everyone who practices righteousness is born of Him.” Instead of practicing deceit, lies sin, we now gravitate toward doing what is pleasing to God, as we are being shaped into the image of his son.

Boko Haram still holding 219 girls, after escape of four more reported

MAIDUGURI Nigeria Wed May 28, 2014 4:43pm EDT

The Abuja wing of the ''Bring Back Our Girls'' protest group prepare to march to the presidential villa to deliver a protest letter to Nigeria's President Goodluck Jonathan in Abuja, calling for the release of the Nigerian schoolgirls in Chibok who were kidnapped by Islamist militant group Boko Haram, May 22, 2014. REUTERS/Afolabi Sotunde

The Abuja wing of the ”Bring Back Our Girls” protest group prepare to march to the presidential villa to deliver a protest letter to Nigeria’s President Goodluck Jonathan in Abuja, calling for the release of the Nigerian schoolgirls in Chibok who were kidnapped by Islamist militant group Boko Haram, May 22, 2014.

Credit: Reuters/Afolabi Sotunde

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(Reuters) – Four more of the girls kidnapped by Boko Haram last month have escaped than previously thought, Nigeria’s Borno state said on Wednesday, but 219 others were still missing and assumed held by the Islamist militants.

The girls were taking exams at a secondary school in the remote northeastern village of Chibok on April 14 when the Islamist gunmen surrounded it, loaded 276 of them onto trucks and carted them off, according to official figures.

Fifty-three escaped shortly afterwards, say authorities in Borno state, which lies at the epicenter of Boko Haram’s insurgency.

Education commissioner Musa Inuwa told Reuters by telephone the four had been reunited with their parents since then, but he declined to give further details of their escape or say when it happened.

A senior Borno state official said it was not clear when they escaped, and it may even have been several weeks ago. The parents had not contacted authorities when the girls returned.

“It was a little after the initial escapes but we doubt it was a recent escape,” he said.

The girls’ abduction shone an international spotlight on the militants, whose violent struggle for an Islamic state in northern Nigeria has killed thousands and turned them into the biggest threat to security in Africa’s top oil-producing state.

From being a religious movement opposed to Western culture – Boko Haram means “Western education is a sin” in the northern Hausa language – the sect has emerged as a well-armed insurrection with a growing thirst for blood.

Chief of Defence Staff Air Marshal Alex Badeh said on Tuesday the military knew where the abducted girls were but ruled out a rescue by force for fear of endangering them.

Most officials think any raid to rescue them would run a high risk that the girls would be killed by their captors. Boko Haram has repeatedly showed ruthlessness in targeting civilians.

The military has been bruised by criticism at home and abroad of its failure to protect the girls and its slow response to the hostage crisis. Badeh was quoted in the state news agency as saying the military was doing all it could to secure the girls’ release.

“No matter the criticisms, the Nigerian Armed Forces will continue to do what it had sworn to do,” he said. “You are aware that we have international partners working with us to release our girls and our girls will be released.”

Thirty-one security personnel were killed in an attack by heavily armed Boko Haram militants in the town of Buni Yadi on Monday.


(Writing by Tim Cocks; Editing by Andrew Roche)

A short synopsis on the Harbinger


When I first saw a short interview with Jonathan Cahn, I was intrigued at the points he presented. The video was compelling. He spoke of a series of nine signs, which he believed had taken place in America beginning with the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

Many have tried to insert a greater significance to the attacks on this day, trying to make sense out of such a ruthless act. Are there not other events in American history that are equally, if not more, as devastating as 9/11 (i.e., the Revolutionary war, the Civil War, or Pearl Harbor and WW2) Why are these not found to have biblical significance? Certainly, they brought more death and destruction than 9/11. (What of the 1929 crash?) Must we find America in the Bible? A country that has no mention in the Bible but may be indirectly mentioned or referred to with others (i.e., possibly implied, not by name, in Ez.38:13).

Then I further learned it was not just a video, but a book, subtitled An ancient mystery that holds the secret of Americas future. And it is called fiction, which means an invented story. “What you are about to read is presented in the form of a story, but what is contained within the story is real” (p. v.)

Let me quote what is said on the book:

The book traces a series of detailed parallels between what has happened in the United States since the 2001 terrorist attacks—including the economic collapse—and Israel’s history after it turned away from God. Told in fictional narrative, the book unfolds how nine signs concealed in recent events reveal God’s progressive judgment.

Hidden in an ancient biblical prophecy from Isaiah, the mysteries revealed in The Harbinger are so precise that they foretold recent American events down to the exact days. The revelations are so specific that even the most hardened skeptics will find it hard to dismiss or put down. It sounds like the plot of a Hollywood thriller with one exception… IT S REAL.

If one is going to state Isaiah 9:10 contains an ancient mystery that holds the secret of America’s future, then it cannot be a fiction. If it is being presented as a fiction story when in fact it is directly connected to Scripture as a prophecy of judgment upon a nation, then one is denigrating the intent, diminishing its impact to actually have the result that it is supposed to carry. Is the demise of America now a story to entertain?

The DVD became a big seller on the faith chart at Amazon.com… premiered at No. 1 on Amazon’s New Release among several end time scenario books (published by FrontLine, an imprint of Charisma House). It hit the New York Times best-seller list within days of its release. It is also in the top 10 most popular documentaries of any kind.

It’s no secret that there is as much misunderstanding as there is controversy surrounding this book. It does matter how one communicates what he or she has drawn from the Scripture so there will be a minimum of misunderstanding to readers. One of the ways we show maturity is when there is a disagreement, we discern the matter together; it is discussed and looked at by the Bible, determining what is accurate so we are not going by just our own opinion. Needless to say, there are a lot of opinions, pro and con – our discernment must be accurate. There are legitimate concerns here on the interpretation and application of Scripture.

One of the problems is the subjective nature of a story; are people reading into the book something Jonathan Cahn may not be saying? Cahn has not claimed to be a prophet yet he affirms his message is prophetic, from the Scripture.

All this reminds me of a book that made a huge impact when I first became a Christian, This Present Darkness, a book by Frank Peretti, who wrote a thriller on the behind-the-scenes world of Spiritual warfare. People began taking the book as actual instructions from the Bible.

The context of Isaiah 9:8-21 is important, for it is a prophecy of judgment. It begins with:

“The LORD sent a word against Jacob, and it has fallen on Israel.” God declares that He will send Israel’s enemies, the Syrians and the Philistines, to “devour” them (v. 12) V.13: “For the people do not turn to Him who strikes them, nor do they seek the LORD of hosts.” V. 15-16: “The elder and honorable, he is the head; the prophet who teaches lies, he is the tail.” God says he will destroy the head and the tail; who are the corrupt leaders and lying prophets. “For the leaders of this people cause them to err, and those who are led by them are destroyed.”

This will result in civil wars among the tribes of Israel, brother against brother, bringing destruction, starvation, and even cannibalism (vv. 19-20). His anger would not subside, and in His wrath, He would not show them mercy. It ends with v.21: “Manasseh shall devour Ephraim, and Ephraim Manasseh; together they shall be against Judah. For all this His anger is not turned away, but His hand is stretched out still.”

We read in Cahn’s book that the nine “harbingers” in the Isa. 9 passage would take place if Israel did not heed the warnings. These were real, and they did take place. The question is: Does God always give the same pattern signs before judgment? Is he doing this to the United States of America today? Cahn says this is a call to national repentance as it was for Israel. Here is the first problem and probably the basis for this whole matter. This is not a “warning” for repentance but a prophecy of judgment. Can it be extracted and specifically applied to America when it was fulfilled by Israel?  To apply this to America is to more than overstate it. Similarities at one (or a few) point[s] is not sameness. Can we say that America is making the same mistakes Israel made? Yes, in various ways; but to make a direct correlation to the Scripture (Isa.9:10) is not possible; they can only be examples in principle.

I don’t think it is necessary to go into detail on all points if we understand how prophecy is applied. The literal biblical text is the history of Israel in the 8th century B.C.- it is not current events. If Cahn is correct in these signs (harbingers) of Isaiah, the judgment has come on America; it as certain as night follows day, as it was to Israel at that time.

Having said this, I think we can all agree that America is seeing judgment in a number of ways, but to say they correspond exactly to Israel’s judgment or it is a text about America is a stretch. Hunger, unemployment, rise of prices, lack of rain can be signs that judgment is occurring, especially when they are all happening within the same time period.

I can agree with the intent of The Harbinger, which is to call America to repentance for the abandoning of our so-called foundations on which the country was built and her turning away from God. But we have to understand a number of things to have the right premise. Israel was a theocracy, America was not. Even if one believes America is a Christian nation, America was not (nor is now) a Christian nation in the way Israel was a nation under YHWH.

The problem I see is that the book directly links the Isaiah Scripture to America’s history. Without going into all the quotes and problems that many other commentators have already given, let me present a few that are significant:

The Prophet: “But there was one other—a civilization also conceived and dedicated to the will of God from its conception . . . America. In fact, those who laid its foundations . . .”

Noriel Kaplan: “The Founding Fathers.”

The Prophet: “No, long before the Founding Fathers. Those who laid America’s foundations saw it as the new Israel, an Israel of the New World. And as it was with ancient Israel, they saw it as in covenant with God.”

No doubt, Cahn is referring to the Pilgrims and is presenting the idea to the reader that America’s founders and early leaders established the nation to be in a covenant relationship with God like ancient Israel. While they may have thought this, it is God Who initiated a covenant relationship with only one nation. It is through Abraham he established covenant. Israel is unique as far as mankind’s history goes.This part of Cahn’s story of America being the New Israel does bring more confusion than clarity about Israel, the nation from Abraham.

There are principles that can be applied in both blessing and judgment, and there are patterns in prophecy that are exhibited until its ultimate fulfillment. Paul says the Old Testament is the believer’s example.

Is America following the same patterns that have exact results that happened to Israel or following principles presented in the Bible? Throughout The Harbinger, we find that these are not parallels but a direct correlation, based on what is clearly stated in the book by the main characters. Here are a few examples:

Ana Goren asks: “How could an ancient mystery have anything to do with September 11?”

Nouriel Kaplan: An ancient mystery behind everything from 9/11 to the economy . . . to the housing boom . . . to the war in Iraq . . . to the collapse of Wall Street. Everything in precise detail” (p.3).

The Prophet: “The Assyrians are the fathers of terrorism, and those who mercilessly plotted out the calamity on 9/11 were their spiritual children, another link in the mystery joining America to ancient Israel”(p.3).

Kaplan: “Some link between this city and the ancient vow,” I said. “Somehow Isaiah 9:10  has to be connected to Washington DC.”(p.61)

The Prophet: “Solomon was the king of Israel. Washington was the first president of the United States. There was something in the linking of ancient Israel and America, as with all the other mysteries.”(p.109)

Solomon was appointed King, Washington was elected, hardly a good correlation. To see the inauguration of George Washington in New York City as a “consecration” of America to God in the same manner as Solomon’s consecration of the Temple in Jerusalem is not a good way to connect this event to the Scripture. This is linking the dots when there are none to link.

There are certain scriptures we will not fully understand until the end (Dan. 12:8-9). But can Isaiah 9:10 be a prophetic judgment on the United States when 2 Peter 1:20: “knowing this first, that no prophecy of Scripture is of any private interpretation.” To correlate current events directly to the Isaiah 9:10 prophesy is dubious. There are always principles that can be applied in both blessing and judgment, and there are specific patterns in prophecy that are exhibited in history until its ultimate fulfillment. Paul says the Old Testament is a believer’s example. If one does certain things wrong, we can see the outcome because it is written in Scripture with Israel in the past. Similarities found in prophecy are not sameness. If Cahn were contrasting pattern and applying it’s eschatological manner for America, it would be valid. If the prophecies to Israel are directly applied to America, not just in application but exegetically, then it is invalid. This is not an accurate hermeneutic.

God made no covenant with America as he did with Israel. How does a country repent when the majority of leaders of that country are not just irreligious but anti God and anti Israel (yes this does come into the picture because of Joel 3; should not America repent of forcing Israel to give up land?)? Any covenant found in America is between the Church and Jesus Christ (i.e., those who were saved by his gospel and enter into the New covenant by faith).

Let us apply a principle of Isa. 9: “For the leaders of this people cause them to err, and those who are led by them are destroyed.”

After 9/11, instead of true repentance, ecumenical interfaith was instigated by the spirit of American patriotism. Many Christian leaders joined in prayer with leaders of all faiths to console our nation. How would this repentance be done with so many different religions involved? Do we tell everyone to turn to their God (as Glenn Beck seems to do in his patriotic meetings)? Are these same leaders going to lead us to repentance? Humbling oneself and turning to the true God is more difficult than ever in our day. Maybe if these leaders took more time giving the gospel, America would not be in the spiritual state she’s in.

God has given us the signs in His Word:

Mark 13:12-13: “Now brother will betray brother to death, and a father his child; and children will rise up against parents and cause them to be put to death.” And you will be hated by all men for My name’s sake.”

Jesus said the last days would be like the days of Noah, where they would be filled with violence. So is it really necessary to find signs as mystery into the Scripture?

2 Tim. 3:1-5: “But know this, that in the last days perilous times will come: For men will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, unloving, unforgiving, slanderers, without self-control, brutal, despisers of good, traitors, headstrong, haughty, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God, having a form of godliness but denying its power. And from such people turn away!”

These are the signs to look for in any country, not just America. If you want to know where America is – this is the indication, just like any other country. Yet it says to us as individuals “For everyone to whom much is given, from him much will be required; (Lk.12:48)

Luke 11:29-30: Jesus said to those gathered, “This is an evil generation. It seeks a sign, and no sign will be given to it except the sign of Jonah the prophet. “For as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, so also the Son of Man will be to this generation.”

The sign of the resurrection is the harbinger to all people, to all generations subsequent, to repent and believe in the Only True God, Who became man and rose from the dead. As Paul summed it up to the philosophers of his day on Mars Hill where they practiced religious pluralism in Acts 17:30-31: “Truly, these times of ignorance God overlooked, but now commands all men everywhere to repent, because He has appointed a day on which He will judge the world in righteousness by the Man whom He has ordained. He has given assurance of this to all by raising Him from the dead.” (also 2 Pet.2:9)

The king of the world; Out of the Shadows comes the Antichrist


Pt.2 The king of the world; Out of the Shadows comes the Antichrist

“Daniel, shut up the words, and seal the book until the time of the end; many shall run to and fro, and knowledge shall increase”(12:4), “for the words are closed up and sealed till the time of the end”(12:9). Daniel was told 2700 years ago when this prophecy would be understood. John is told for this future generation: “Do not seal the words of the prophecy of this book, for the time is at hand” (Revelation 22:10). Referring back to chapter 1:19 where John saw the things that are and will come to pass. We are in the time of the end, what Daniel sealed will be revealed. At this time in the end when knowledge increases throughout the earth. This has a dual meaning, knowledge in our technology age has increased (doubling nearly every year) But it is also meant for those who seek God’s Word. They will begin to understand what was unable to be known centuries before. We will begin to get a clearer understanding of what was written as the end of the age escalates. Daniel was told about this knowledge, “none of the wicked shall understand, but the wise shall understand” (12:10).

Prior to Christ’s coming a falling away from the faith (inside the visible church) will occur. It will be noticed by those who are practicing the faith. Paul in 2 Thess.2 warns us living at the time, “Let no one deceive you by any means.” Repeating the same warning Jesus did in the beginning of his discourse in Matthew twenty-four about the succession of events at the end of the age. The Laodicean church becomes the dominant type; it is the only church Jesus has absolutely nothing good to say about, it had no commendation, only rebuke. But those inside it have much good to say about themselves.

Paul reminds the Thessalonian believers about what must occur in order for the Antichrist to be revealed. 2 Thessalonians 2:7 says: “For the mystery of iniquity (lawlessness) is already at work: only He who now restrains will do so until He is taken out of the way.” The mystery of lawlessness, in Greek mystery is musterion meaning to hide or conceal. In the ordinary sense a “mystery” implies knowledge withheld, not easily detected or understood.

What is hidden will one day be revealed and brought to a conclusion. Just as in Jesus dwelt all the fullness of the Godhead bodily, so the counterfeit, Antichrist will be the full and final embodiment of the devil. He will be the “mystery of iniquity,” manifested. In v.6 of 2 Thessalonians the Apostle Paul writes “and you know what is restraining, that he may be revealed in his own time.” The normal word for time is chronos, but here the word for time here is kairos, which is translated to mean the “time of opportunity.” The man of sin who has been is withheld from appearing in the world for a particular time will come to its fruition. This restraining force opposes evil and holds back its growth, preventing the man of sin (v.3) from coming into his time of power. Human government is part of God’s plan to restrain evil (Romans 13) but it cannot be powerful enough to restrain or hold back the antichrist, for at this time it falls under his control. Once the restraint is removed evil will no longer be in check and will increase dramatically and spread to all.

For a time the development of the world preparation would be hindered or restrained until it no longer needs to be restrained 2 Thess. 2:1-70. At the time Paul wrote this epistle, (He) was being preventedfrom being revealed. Over 1900 years later: the lawless one is closer to being revealed. The mystery of iniquity that is already in the world is growing, but is restrained by the Holy Spirit.The Holy Spirit that is present on earth [who is also in individual believers, and the Church] continues to be restraining (hinders, prevents) the antichrist from revealing himself. At a certain time He, the restrainer will no longer prevent him, the mystery of iniquity. It will be revealed in a man, the lawless one. Eventually this will bring the world under one head, an individual leader.

What has withheld him is slowly being removed; as we see lawlessness is increasing. Like the flood waters rising with Noah, the world will at a certain point enter the tribulation, that day the restraining will completely be removed. What he has waited millennia for will finally take place. He comes when everything is in its right place; the timing is based on the nations and with God.

The mystery that was operating throughout the world in Paul’s day increases. Jesus says in the end “lawlessness will abound.” John writes, “sin is lawlessness” (1 John 3:4-5). In other words it will overtake any good in the world. The final conflict between the mystery of lawlessness and the mystery of Godliness will take place. It is the revealing of sin, the one who brought sin to mankind, will be in the man of sin, the son of perdition, the lawless one.

Dictators assert themselves to power because the people are not vigilant for freedom, they become lazy, asleep. If one looks at all the scriptural descriptions by Jesus, Paul, John etc and how they describe the end of the age; the term that most encapsulates it is deception (Jesus used this 4 times in Mt.24).

2 Tim 3:1-5 “But know this, that in the last days perilous times will come:

Perilous in Greek –chalepos, means through the idea of reducing the strength; difficult, i.e. dangerous, or (by implication) furious: Thayer’s describes it as 1) hard to do, to take, to approach 2) hard to bear, troublesome, dangerous, harsh, fierce, savage. Now lets read the descriptions, “For men will be lovers of themselves, lovers of money, boasters, proud, blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, unholy, unloving, unforgiving, slanderers, without self-control, brutal, despisers of good, traitors, headstrong, haughty, lovers of pleasure rather than lovers of God, having a form of godliness but denying its power. And from such people turn away!” Morals will run amok in the culture because of churches with no Holy Spirit.

We are told there are many antichrists that have already come, but there is still the last and most important one of all. He will culminate all of the dictators into one. He will be the shrewdest most conniving murderer, liar, destroyer of them all. “And in the latter time of their kingdom, when the transgressors have reached their fullness, a king shall arise, having fierce features, who understands sinister schemes. “Through his cunning he shall cause deceit to prosper under his rule; and he shall exalt himself in his heart. He shall destroy many in their prosperity” (Dan. 8:23-25) this verse is filled with descriptions that will match a certain individual at that certain time.

All is prepared for the man of sin at the end of the age, when rebellion reaches its culmination. Many antichrists, many false prophets, those who operate as false teachers in the church are corrupters of the truth have the spirit of this one who is to come. It will increase apostasy by a succession of individuals, who would operate by the spirit of antichrist. Unknowingly, many people have become involved in a co-operation with what the Bible calls the spirit of antichrist.

As the spirit of antichrist increases in the world it is also brought into the church by the corrupted teachers, you know who they are, they are the ones that mention hell only because Christ went there to be tortured by the demons. They divide the body with their own lies because they are anointed by the one who is to come, the false Christ. We are in that age of fruition. There is a real disconnect on what is important, what affects us. Commercial prophecy conferences state the obvious but avoid the real issue, the apostasy, which sets the door open for the fallen anointed one’s entrance. He comes within the framework of the increasing apostasy, as the church will no longer hold to Bible doctrine, few will recognize him for who he is, but there will be those who will – and they will speak. Few will listen.

In our day most people cannot recognize evil, even when it is staring them in the face. Maybe it is because of the pervasiveness of moral relativism that has intruded the culture and the church. They insist that it’s best to think good of everyone, be positive, not negative. Our new viewpoint insists on the majority being liberal, non-judgmental, having no discretion, avoiding scrutiny.

Will the church recognize the one who is the counterfeit the Bible warned of? How, when they are surrounded by counterfeits and have nothing to say. Antichrist is revealed to the world in the middle of the tribulation, Christians should be able to identify him at the beginning. There are a number of qualifications he will fill that connect the dots. That is what we will look at as we understand what is taking place.

But we are living in some very evil days and its NOT going away, but only going to get worse, far worse. Outlook: we are ripening for the picking.

So many people have amassed a large amount of influence, money, power, controlling the world banks, commerce and food (seeds) etc. The majority want to see some kind of global governance over the nations. Some think it is the most beneficial, compassionate and logical thing to take place at this stage. They are unknowingly being influenced– being moved into position by the very one who wants to rule the world. So preparation is already underway for his acceptance in the various facets of life. His “lawless” spirit working in prominent people is already in place, when he comes, his rise to power will be quick.

The spirit of antichrist will spread like a net over the world and become the norm. The world stage must be prepared for this leader. His rise and acceptance will be seamless, many will see it as destiny. In real life terms he offers himself to the people as the ultimate problem solver. He will be liked, and loved by all.He will pass legislation that will appear to help everyone. He will be seen as the greatest humanitarian, a stature that is liken to Jesus. And he will accept this. They will claim that he is a man of light that can remove the darkness. They will recognize his intelligence and his charisma will win them over. The anti-Christ will have a worldly appeal for mankind to accept him. Besides having a supernatural attraction, he will quite possibly be young and handsome as the world looks to the outward and is impressed more with looks and charisma than with the substance. Much the way Israel did with their first king Saul.

Look at the changing landscape. Fraudulent is the one word that describes this whole period and execution of this man’s leadership. As the song goes everybody wants to rule the world but only one person will get the chance, temporarily. He will positionally be set up as the King of the world, we call them presidents. But he does not publicly become known, famous by his religious view. Beginning in politics, he can be the president of one nation and will consistently rise to prominence.

He comes as a politician to unify the nations; Watch politics carefully. For people to allow this particular man to be president over all the countries, he would have to convince them of his worth. That he can lead the world into prosperity and peace and a new era (a golden age) that all will share in and none be excluded.

Some thoughts on his overall demeanor. He will be the quintessential narcissist, everything will be about him. He will love to be spoken of and be on people minds everyday, it will like devotion (worship). It is unlikely he would rise in a 3rd world country that would have no resources and is struggling with poverty. It would be a country of influence. Take for example, if this man rose in America, what would he have to do? He would have to lead it down a path he has decided. Maybe by taking it hostage or destroying it’s foundation of law and religion and rebuild it in his own image. Any influence of that countries traditions for good and God will first be diminished to come under his control. This is why we read the finance and commerce system will directly be linked with his name if he is to have control of everything. Once you make the culture secular you can begin again and introduce whatever religious system, or non religious system you want. After success, he can easily convince others to follow his system.

We have heard for so many years by preachers that he is alive and biding his time for his revealing. Of course we have heard the same from the new age movement and their hope for Maitreya to be revealed. If he is to be a ruler of some country, logically it would be strong and influential. If you have the strongest country controlled all the others will fall in line. So he will either control the country, or take it out by some means.

For centuries people wondered how this would be competed. Many think a single man will be picked and groomed. I don’t see this as strategic. We can learn from history and the many dictators that have already come on the scene. The old saying of not putting all your eggs in one basket applies. Satan will have his hand on a number of people, developing them to be the one. He may not know which one it will be until that certain time. But God will, and will allow only one of them to go all the way, prophecy will be fulfilled. Certainly one cannot know ahead of time, absolutes on this matter are hardly possible.

There are those who have already come that have openly claimed to be the Christ, the Messiah, (Matt 24:5, 24). False messiahs copy what they can of Jesus to have people accept them. Paul had the future in mind, when the spirit of antichrist will be embodied when wrote I Jn. 2:18 “Little children, it is the last hour; and as you have heard that the Antichrist is coming, even now many antichrists have come, by which we know that it is the last hour.”

All these “antichrists” are precursors of The Antichrist, in whom they will find their climax. We know it is nearing the time by how many came before. We may see many men acting in the same nature of the Antichrist before he appears. It may be that many men will be chosen to be the Devil’s surrogate and fail until God allows one of them to be him.

None before him will compare to the power and ability this last one will display. It will find completion during the ultimate rebellion against the true God, bringing those who reject the truth under one head, an individual leader known as the Antichrist.

One needs to first study the nature of Christ (holiness) to identify the one that will oppose him and replace him temporarily, convincing the world he is Christ (not Jesus). All his characteristics will be understood by his nature, as one who replaces Christ and opposes him. All the opposite qualities and characteristics of Jesus will be working in him but he will still be admired, because he comes when the world is lawless.

After studying the activities and functions of the true messiah we should be equipped to recognize the false one. Those who know the Lord Jesus will be repulsed by everything this person does, because he will be against Christ and all that is holy. Others who think He is Christ will be against those who speak out about him. It’s not just recognizing evil but will you identify it, and him; will you resist him if you are here.

Let’s look at some general comparisons of antichrist to Jesus Christ to illustrate the nature and the context of the counterfeit.

The “Lamb” is the Savior of sinners; The “Lamb” speaks of sacrifice and the gentleness of Christ; the “Beast” persecutes and kills the saints (Revelation 13:7). The “Beast” describes the fierceness and cruelty of the Devil’s nature through the man who is Antichrist.

While Jesus was humble and meek, this man will exhibit incredible charisma that will be manifested to manipulate the masses to accept his words as if they are the only right choice. He will be boastful, insolent, and aggressive. The false messiah will copy everything he can of Jesus, but he will cause division, but not for what is right; though the people will be convinced it is for their good.

When the Savior entered this world, He came saying, “Lo I come to do Thy will, O God” (Hebrews 10:9); but of the Antichrist it is written “And the king shall do according to his will” (Daniel 11:36). The Antichrist will set himself up in direct opposition to all authority, both Divine and human. He comes in his own name to do his own will, which is the opposite of Jesus. He will promise freedom but bring bondage. He will act meek but exercise strength.

Jesus is the way; the false messiah will have his way. Jesus is the truth incarnate – The false messiah will be the lie incarnate. He will act in the nature of Satan, a liar. He will be the best liar anyone has ever seen. Where someone may tell the truth, he will twist it into a lie. He will lie and will convince people he is telling the truth.

The son of perdition is the false shepherd. He leads the people to destruction. He will kill, steal and destroy but it will look like he has a benevolent reason. Hitler killed 1/3 of the Jews; by the end of his rule Antichrist will have killed 2/3 of the Jews (Zech. 13:8 though he will try to eliminate every one). It is this nation that becomes his special target because he knows the scripture where Jesus required the Jews to call upon him for his return (Mt.23).

He will promise prosperity while at the same time bankrupt people and their lives. We are told he loves money. It says this “the king will do as he pleases.” He will rule as king and convince the people he has the answers to everything. And implement his policies to solve it all. One of them will be the economic problems (Rev.13).

Satan’s man will pose as God’s man, offering an alternate plan of rescue, but not from sin, but from war. Peace will be his platform. He will also promise peace and prosperity, the good life here and now.

Christ is the Son of God, having the same nature as his Father (Luke 1:35). He cannot eliminate Jesus out of history so he may refer to Jesus Christ as “a son of God,” not the only begotten son of God. We see this in embryo today. The Antichrist is called the son of Perdition, by having the same nature as Satan (2 Thess. 2:3)

Many parallels could be cited to show that he copies what Christ did in the very opposite manner. But this will not be so obvious at first because he will be deceptive in his works and words as he substitutes himself as the Messiah of the world.

Pt.2 The Devil is in the details


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Types and patterns of the coming Antichrist


Types and patterns of the coming Antichrist

The angels were the first creatures made by God, they had the opportunity to see God and serve him in heaven. The one the Bible calls the devil, Satan, was the greatest of angels who had his ministry nearest to God, over his throne, until he fell with pride.

Pride is a potential in any intelligent creature, and this is Satan’s greatest attribute; you could say it is his fingerprint in his work.

The devil tries to pattern himself after God, he copies whatever he possibly can of God to make it look genuine good. He disguises both himself and the  lure to bring people into the condition of sin.

The Bible speaks of the mystery of Iniquity. There is a certain point when sin, which the Devil introduced to mankind reaches it peak man will reject God’s counsel and ways and God will give man over to his desires. Like Pharaoh whom God tried to have repent after so much rejection he will then have him unable to repent.

“I also will choose their delusions, and will bring their fears upon them; because when I called, none did answer; when I spake, they did not hear: but they did evil before mine eyes, and chose that in which I delighted not” (Isaiah 66:4).


“And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should believe a lie: That they all might be damned who believed not the truth, but had pleasure in unrighteousness.” (2 Thessalonians 2:10-12)


The term “antichrist” is used in the New Testament exclusively by the apostle John who applies the term to those who deny that Jesus (as God) came in the flesh – “incarnated” only once (1 Timothy 3:16); they are of the anti-Christ spirit.

John in his epistles was specifically addressing the Gnostics who were within the church and denied his incarnation. Today we see this continue in the New Age Movement and mystics who perceives Jesus Christ as an archetype; Christ as a continual office, a principle or consciousness all can achieve. Many false prophets, heretics, and corrupters of the truth were already found in John’s own time. John writes, “Little children, it is the last hour; and as you have heard that the Antichrist is coming (literally: that antichrist shall come-singular), even now many antichrists (plural) have come, by which we know that it is the last hour. They went out from us, but they were not of us; for if they had been of us, they would have continued with us; but they went out that they might be made manifest, that none of them were of us” (I John 2:18-19).

Many antichrists have come and are still coming; but there is one who is called THE Antichrist, who will be the last world ruler. He is described as a dictator that is more dangerous and destructive than all the dictators that have come before him. But He will not be a dictator when he is first introduced. He comes on the scene as benevolent and a problem solver. He will impress people by his charisma, and convince them he is sincere.

John further writes to the church, I John 2:21-22: “I have not written to you because you do not know the truth, but because you know it, and that no lie is of the truth. Who is a liar but he who denies that Jesus is the Christ? He is antichrist who denies the Father and the Son.” This is an exclusive statement to mean Jesus alone is God’s anointed one – the only Christ.  Someone who denies Jesus as the only anointed one falls into this category. To deny this is also to deny the Father because of his testimony of the Son and their relationship.

I  John 4:1-3 instructs: “Beloved, do not believe every spirit, but test the spirits, whether they are of God; because many false prophets have gone out into the world. By this you know the Spirit of God: Every spirit that confesses that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is of God, and every spirit that does not confess that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh is not of God. And this is the spirit of the Antichrist, which you have heard was coming, and is now already in the world.”

The phrase“Jesus has come in the flesh” means God came as a man – through the Jewish lineage (Son of David): Jesus was raised from the dead in the same body (glorified) He incarnated in and continues to live in it.

Several times this term is used in the plural, and can be applied to almost anyone who is opposed to Christ i.e. those who deny that Jesus came in the flesh are anti-Christ or of the spirit of antichrist (these would be the majority of cults that deny Jesus is God that became man ).  Believing in Jesus doesn’t save you unless

He is understood as Lord (YHVH), as the one true God who became man for our salvation.

The Antichrist is not describing a widespread apostasy of the Christian Church, this happens before he takes his position of power.  Nor is this term applied any apostate teacher or religious system.  Not all heresies are connected to this term. In one sense John applies “his spirit” made known specifically to those that deny God was manifested in the flesh of Jesus and rose in the flesh. However he also applies it to a single individual.

We are told to test the spirits. Because there have been and still are false prophecies prompted by false spirits outside and inside the Church. All false prophets are types of the one who is to come (the Son of Perdition), as they deny Jesus. The spirit of the Antichrist  will have the nature of the one it represents.

We cannot know who or what is antichrist without first understanding what the spirit of antichrist is.

John’s gospel has the word “truth” 26 times; he speaks on the subject of truth more than all the other gospel writers combined.  The phrase the “spirit of truth” is found only 3 times in John’s writings and the phrase “the spirit of truth and the spirit of error” occurs nowhere else in the New Testament. John also writes of the spirit of truth and the spirit of error.False prophets speak a counterfeit Logos (a false word) by another spirit, Jesus gave us the true word, which is the Spirit of truth. The Spirit of truth is known and lived by ones adherence to the doctrine written from the apostles. The Spirit of error (Greek – planay) has the meaning of fraudulence, straying from orthodoxy, an error that shows itself in action.  Satan the father of lies is the energizing force behind all false spirits and the false religion that men do not invent on their own.

I John 4:5-8 “They are of the world. Therefore they speak as of the world, and the world hears them. We are of God. He who knows God hears us; he who is not of God does not hear us. By this we know the spirit of truth and the spirit of error.”  John’s statement “He who knows God hears us” refers to our listening to the apostle’s teachings they are distributing to the church. John makes a distinction between “us” and “them.” Them are those who went away and started their own movements and changed the teachings.

1 John 4:15: “whoever confesses that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, God abides in him and he in God,” To confess means to say the same thing; this confession was that He truly was God in the flesh, because John earlier wrote in chapter 4 of those who denied, “that Jesus Christ has come in the flesh” have the Spirit of antichrist. John at the time was addressing the Gnostics who denied God became a man. These false teachers of his day denied the reality of the incarnation as many continue to do today.

I John 5:19 “We know that we are of God, and the whole world lies under the sway of the wicked one.” Every Christian should know Satan is the temporary ruler of this world system. Ephesians 2:2: as believers “once walked according to the course of this world, according to the prince of the power of the air, the spirit who now works in the sons of disobedience.” We are no longer to “be conformed to this world”(Romans 12:2). We were once of this spirit and followed its dictates of relativity, and conformity. The spirit of the age wants to bring everyone into a unity without God’s truth, but a lie that will be presented as the truth. There is strength in numbers and a block of people is far easier to mislead when they are together, a co-operation which the Bible calls the spirit of antichrist.

Anti can mean “against” or a “substitute” instead of Christ. This man will claim to be in the place of Christ, be in opposition to him in person and teaching. He is one who opposes and also replaces the real Christ.The Antichrist will deny the existence of the true God coming in the flesh as he comes in his own name.

A.T. Roberston Word Pictures in the New Testament, Vol. I VI; (Baker:) 215 explains: “Anti can mean substitution or opposition, but both ideas are identical in the word antichristos.

Denying Jesus as the only begotten Son of God, the only Christ throughout history has been setting the stage so that the Antichrist can easily assume position and power.

Who is this anti-christos (antichrist).  Any person, thing, doctrine, system of religion, etc., which is opposed to Christ being the only Son of God, and is contrary to spread the true Gospel, denying the word of God–this is antichrist.

Some of the opposites of the true Christ: The false Christ does not want to die, he loves his life, while Jesus gave His life willingly, He wants to preserve it but not give life to others (Jn.8:44).

The devil will offer to mankind another Christ, one that will be conducive to all religions but oppose real Christianity and it will be called the truth. He distorts disregards and disguises the truth and replaces it with his own words, a lie. And the people who have rejected the love of the truth will happily accept it (2 Thess. 2:10).

All of these “antichrists” that have come are types, precursors of the man of sin, in whom they will all find their culmination in. John taught that there will be a final future antichrist, (singular) but he is preceded by many antichrists, (plural) until he comes. None before him will compare to the power and ability this last one will display. They were in first grade while the professor that taught them is coming. It will find completion in the ultimate rebellion, bringing those who reject the truth under one head, an individual leader known as the man of sin, and lawlessness – the Antichrist. Everything that Christ stood for and represented, holiness, truth, honesty will be twisted, the false Christ will replace it with evil and sin that he will convince is the good. He will directly challenge the Lord and his word.

John 1:5: “And the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.” Darkness often corresponds with sin, ignorance, and a fallen state. John is replaying the Genesis account showing its fulfillment as he is introducing Jesus in his gospel. There was darkness and God spoke and there was light and then gave life. John says 1:9 he “was the true Light which gives light to every man coming into the world.” Jesus is the word that was with God that gave life.

At the end of the age far less will understand, the light will be in conflict with the increasing darkness, deception will be the norm. We are watching that occur today; as the light of truth and the gospel is becoming dimmer.

I must work the works of Him who sent Me while it is day; the night is coming when no one can work. “As long as I am in the world, I am the light of the world” (John 9:4-5).

Jesus spoke of time when it would be difficult to do God’s work

For you yourselves know perfectly that the day of the Lord so comes as a thief in the night” (1Thes 5:2) the day of the lord is another name for the Great Tribulation, it will come upon everyone suddenly.

The end will resemble the beginning as Jesus comes back in glory during the darkness that has overtaken mankind.

The only thing that is keeping this world from complete darkness is the light. Jesus spoke of his arrest and how it related to darkness.

Luke 22:53: “When I was with you daily in the temple, you did not try to seize Me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness.”

As Satan motivated the men who rejected Christ to rid the world of him, in the end he will retry this and succeed temporarily to replace him.

Eph. 5:8 “For you were once darkness, but now you are light in the Lord. Walk as children of light”

1 Thess.5:5 “You are all sons of light and sons of the day. We are not of the night nor of darkness.” We are to be aware of the time and the events that surround us and not walk as if we see nothing. Christians should be the most aware people because they know what certain changes mean in relation to prophecy.

Along with the Antichrist is the spirit of iniquity is mentioned in 2 Thessalonians 2:7 states, “For the mystery of iniquity (lawlessness) is already at work: only He who now restrains will do so until He is taken out of the way.  The Holy Spirit who is in the world and in the believers, in the Church, restrains (hinders, prevents) the Antichrist from revealing himself. Paul says the mystery has been operating in power throughout the world and is prevented from coming to its zenith because of God, the Holy Spirit.

2 Thess. 2:3 the Antichrist is called “the Son of Perdition.” Just as the Christ is the Son of God, so the Antichrist will be the son of Satan. Just as the fullness of the Godhead bodily was in Jesus, “He that hath seen Me, hath seen the Father,”  the Antichrist will be the full and final embodiment of the Devil, the greatest creature God had made. All his characteristics and ways will be exhibited in and by this person chosen to be the one.

Jesus had a certain time He would be made known and so will the Devil.

Gal. 4:4: “But when the fullness of the time had come, God sent forth His Son, born of a woman, born under the law” to redeem – to save.

As Jesus was born in the fullness of time, so it will be with the false messiah and his revealing.

2 Thess. 2:6-7 ‘And now you know what is restraining, that he may be revealed in his own time. For the mystery of lawlessness is already at work; only He who now restrains will do so until He is taken out of the way.”

The word often used for time is chronos but kairos is used, which is translated to mean the “time of opportunity.” The man of sin is withheld from appearing in the world until a particular time. A restraining that opposes evil and holds back the man of sin (v.3) preventing him from coming into power. Human government is part of God’s plan to restrain evil (Romans 13) but it cannot be powerful enough to restrain or hold back the antichrist.The Holy Spirit that is present on earth [who is also in individual believers, and the Church] continues to be restraining (hinders, prevents) the antichrist from revealing himself. What has withheld him is slowly being removed; lawlessness is increasing.  Once the restraint is removed evil will no longer be in check. At a certain time He will no longer prevent him

God was manifested in the flesh (1 Tim.1:9); The Son of God was manifested for a certain reason:

I Jn 3:4-5: “Whoever commits sin also commits lawlessness, and sin is lawlessness. And you know that He was manifested to take away our sins, and in Him there is no sin.”V.8 He who sins is of the devil, for the devil has sinned from the beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was manifested, that He might destroy the works of the devil.”

Satan will bring people into an age of sin, evil, debauchery – they will be made in his image, his nature.

Notice the relation of sin with lawlessness. Jesus says in the end “lawlessness will abound.” The Father says to the son: “You have loved righteousness and hated lawlessness” (Hebrews 1:9). This man of sin is called the lawless one, having the nature of Satan he will want lawlessness. This causes confusion and disarray, but answers will not come easy.

Rom. 6:19-20: “I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh. For just as you presented your members as slaves of uncleanness, and of lawlessness leading to more lawlessness, so now present your members as slaves of righteousness for holiness. For when you were slaves of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness.”

Once we were in bondage always sinning and having no inclination to being lawful. But God’s grace brought us to Him. I Jn 4:9: “In this the love of God was manifested toward us, that God has sent His only begotten Son into the world, that we might live through Him.”

Satan will be manifested to promote sin and evil, to challenge God, His truth and holiness. As the Man of Sin he is called “the lawless one” (2 Thess. 2:8-9). As Jesus’ nature was holiness, antichrists will be sin. The antichrist’s message will be void on sin, it will give people freedom to do whatever they please.

Jesus warned at a certain time “many will come in My name, saying, ‘I am the Christ,’ and will deceive many” (Mt. 24:5) Lk. 21:8 And He said: “Take heed that you not be deceived. For many will come in My name, saying, ‘I am He,’ and, ‘The time has drawn near.’ Therefore do not go after them.”

We will know we are in the time period because of how frequent men will speak saying they represent him or are him. Many will listen to their words.

Jesus sternly warned “I have come in My Father’s name, and you do not receive Me; if another comes in his own name, him you will receive” (Jn. 5:43). This one of the most eerie warnings by Jesus. If you do not receive Christ Jesus there will come a time when the only one you will receive will be another Christ. The word another means something similar (allos). The Greek is intensified showing you will definitely do this. Him ye will receive ekeinon (NT:1544) leempsesthe (NT:2942 a). “That one,” whoever he is, as Jesus said. Future active indicative of lambanoo (NT:2942 a). (from Robertson’s Word Pictures in the New Testament).

This other one will claim to be in the place of Christ, but will be in opposition to him in person and teaching. The antichrist will try and counterfeit whatever he can in prophecy and activity.

Satan is described as The God of this World:  (2 Cor. 4:4): He is the influence behind false religion and cults which are against Christianity; he presides over politic that promotes and anti-God life style.

The Prince of this world (Daniel 10:12-11:1; John 12:31; 14:30 16:11): This refers more specifically to his influence over the governments and politics and areas of this world, the is the one who exalts and positions the evil rulers to do his will.

Satan and the Antichrist are found in passages such as 2 Thessalonians 2:9; Daniel 8:23-25; 11:36-39. These passages show us that the man who is THE Antichrist would be a man controlled and energized by Satan .

There is no specific passage that we can point to that says Satan resides IN him, but the implication is there as we read that Satan entered Judas for a time period and he is called the son of perdition, this same title is given to the Antichrist.

2 Thess. 2:9-10: “The coming of the lawless one is according to the working of Satan, with all power, signs, and lying wonders, and with all unrighteous deception among those who perish

Because He is influenced and indwelt directly by the greatest creature made, this man becomes the ultimate evil, a being who opposes God, and he will have power to exhibit Satanic miracles. He shall cause fire to fall from Heaven (Rev. 13:13), counterfeiting what God has done in the past (Exod.9; 1 Kings 18:38). Lying signs and wonders to deceive those who may not believe, even the elect that do not know the word well will be convinced of there being genuine.

Both he and Jesus have a revealing (2 Thessalonians 1:7 and 2:3), a coming (2 Thess.2:1 and 2:9). Just as God was “manifest in the flesh” (1 Timothy 3:16) in Jesus Christ, the Antichrist will be Satan manifested in the flesh, masquerading as Christ, at one point will claim to be God (2 Thessalonians 2:4).

Satan will be able to work miracles through his man (2 Thessalonians 2:9; Revelation 13:3).

Christ came from heaven to earth to do His Fathers will (John 6:38). When the Savior entered this world, He came saying, “Lo I come to do Thy will, O God” (Hebrews 10:9). Antichrist comes from the sea (people) (Reve. 13:1-4,11). “And the king shall do according to his will” (Daniel 11:36-37). His goals will be the very opposite of Christ. Christ humbled himself to become man and serve man (Philippians 2:8); the Antichrist will exalt himself (Daniel 11:36). Jesus came as a servant of all to set man free; the Antichrist comes to enslave men. And both have a kingdom (Luke 22:18; John 3:2,18:36; Revelation 16:10).

He will want to be worshipped (Thessalonians 2:4). “Magnify himself above every god,” “who opposes and exalts himself above all that is called God” (2 Thessalonians 2:4).  Self-exaltation will identify his ministry. Deification of emperors, kings, and other political rulers have occurred throughout our history. All stems from Satan’s desire to be like God. (Daniel 11:36,37). But he will not come on the scene as a tyrant,

The Antichrist is the final ruler of the “Times of the Gentiles, by the time the middle of the tribulation takes place he will have increased his power and authority. but eventually will demand absolute allegiance to his solutions and ways. He will epitomize all the despots we have seen throughout history and make them look as amateurs. He will be loved and obeyed. There are all types of the antichrist throughout mankind’s history.

Some are mentioned in the Bible some are not. Nero was certainly a type of the ruthlessness he will have. Antiochus Epiphanes was a Seleucid king of the Syrians who desecrated the temple in 167 BC. Korah who led the people of Israel to rebel against Moses is a type. Cain is also a type of the antichrist: He was a murderer (John 4:44) as is the antichrist. The Bible says “Cain, who was of that wicked one” and Cain’s “works were evil” (1 John 3:12)

Hitler, Stalin, Mao were all types of the one who is to come. They ruled a nation and killed many of their own people. No one questioned their authority, they were unable to.

The real aspect of Hitler’s influential deception was the spiritual element. Most of the church in Germany were convinced and went along with the new order he promised. German pastors in the thousands joined the “German Christians’ Faith Movement,” which supported the Nazi doctrines and promoted a “Reich Church” that would unite all Protestants under the state. A minority of pastors,  understood this to be anti-Christian, and opposed his ideas of  politics and the church.

It is this nature of evil that will have him target the believers during the Tribulation period.

The “Lamb” speaks of sacrifice of Christ who is the Savior of sinners; the “Beast” speaks of tyranny, fierceness and cruelty, for he persecutes and kills the saints (Revelation 13:7).  He kills those who worship the true God (Rev. 6:8-10) that do not worship him.

“And it was given to him to make war with the saints and to overcome them; and authority over every tribe and people and tongue and nation was given to him” (Revelation 13:7). So if one thinks that the saints are protected throughout the tribulation the Bible says otherwise. In the Tribulation a mortal will be more rare than fine gold  (Isa. 13:10-12). Matt 24:9: “Then they will deliver you up to tribulation and kill you, and you will be hated by all nations for My name’s sake.”

Rev 7:9; “After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude which no one could number, of all nations, tribes, peoples, and tongues, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, clothed with white robes, with palm branches in their hands”

Rev 7:14 answers who these people are: “ And I said to him, “Sir, you know.” So he said to me, “These are the ones who come out of the great tribulation, and washed their robes and made them white in the blood of the Lamb.”

The bloodshed will be continual and furious against the saints in the tribulation period. The survival rate is small.

Rev. 8:1-6: “When He opened the seventh seal, there was silence in heaven for about half an hour. And I saw the seven angels who stand before God, and to them were given seven trumpets. Then another angel, having a golden censer, came and stood at the altar. And he was given much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne. And the smoke of the incense, with the prayers of the saints, ascended before God from the angel’s hand.             Then the angel took the censer, filled it with fire from the altar, and threw it to the earth. And there were noises, thunderings, lightnings, and an earthquake. So the seven angels who had the seven trumpets prepared themselves to sound” One reason the judgments are sent is in response to the saints being killed, God is answering their prayers.

Previously we  read in (Rev.5:8) Rev. 6:9-11 “When He opened the fifth seal, I saw under the altar the souls of those who had been slain for the word of God and for the testimony which they held. And they cried with a loud voice, saying, “How long, O Lord, holy and true, until You judge and avenge our blood on those who dwell on the earth?” Then a white robe was given to each of them; and it was said to them that they should rest a little while longer, until both the number of their fellow servants and their brethren, who would be killed as they were, was completed.”

This kind of destruction of human life we have seen only glimpses of by the despots in the past. They were children playing with death. The Lawless one will be like the teacher of these children who committed such treacherous acts to men in our past. It is for this reason Jesus said, “For then there will be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world until this time, no, nor ever shall be.“And unless those days were shortened, no flesh would be saved” (Matt 24:21-22):


Pt.2 The king of the world; Out of the Shadows comes the Antichrist


Copyright (c) 2012 No portion of this site is to be copied or used unless kept in its original format in the way it appears. Articles can be reproduced in portions for ones personal use, any other use is to have the permission of the author first. Thank You.

VICARIUS FILII DEI 666, The Number of the Beast


666, The Number of the Beast

Rev 13:16 And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to receive a mark in their right hand, or in their foreheads:
Rev 13:17 And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.
Rev 13:18 Here is wisdom. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.

Note that according to verse 17, there are three different characteristics that distinguish the beast:

  • his mark (of authority)
  • his name
  • the number of his name (666).

It might be argued by some that 666 must be applied to one man’s name, and that this will then help identify him as the antichrist. I would offer the following verse to show that 666 need not apply solely to a man’s name:

Rev 19:16 And he hath on his vesture and on his thigh a name written, KING OF KINGS, AND LORD OF LORDS.

The same Greek word translated as name (onoma: G3686) that appears in Revelation 13:17-18 is also used in chapter 19:16, so clearly the word can also apply to a title, and not just one man’s name. Now, we are told that it takes a certain understanding and wisdom to discern just how this number is actually applied. Based on the fact that 666 can apply to a title, below are several words and phrases that have been put forth over the centuries as probable solutions to the enigma of 666.


The numeric equivalents of Greek letters can also be found in the Encyclopedia Britannica under “Languages of the World”, Table 8.

The ancient Greek word for “the Latin speaking man” is LATEINOS

L =   30 lambda
A =     1 alpha
T = 300 tau
E =     5 epsilon
I =     10 iota
N =   50 nu
O =   70 omicron
S = 200 sigma

NOTE: Latin is the official language of the Roman Catholic Church. Church Documents are usually published first in Latin, and then translated from the Latin into other languages. The association of “Lateinos” with 666 was first suggested by Irenæus (ca. 130-202 A.D.) who proposed in his Against Heresies that it might be the name of the fourth kingdom in Daniel 7:7.

Then also Lateinos has the number six hundred and sixty-six; and it is a very probable [solution], this being the name of the last kingdom [of the four seen by Daniel]. For the Latins are they who at present bear rule: I will not, however, make any boast over this [coincidence].

Source:  Against Heresies, by Irenæus, Book 5, chapter 30, paragraph 3.
St. Irenaeus biography online at the New Advent Catholic web site.

The ancient Greek for
“The Latin Kingdom” is
 BASILEIA is Strong’s # G932
The ancient Greek for
“Italian Church” is

EKKLESIA is Strong’s # G1577
And in ancient Greek
the word APOSTATES
And in ancient Greek
the word for “tradition”
Strong’s # G3862
H =      0 (transliterated)
E =      8 eta
L =    30 lambda
A =     1 alpha
T =  300 tau
I =     10 iota
N =   50 nu
E =     8 eta
B =     2 beta
A =     1 alpha
S =  200 sigma
I =     10 iota
L =    30 lambda
E =      5 epsilon
I =     10 iota
A =      1 alpha
I =    10 iota
T = 300 tau
A =     1 alpha
L =   30 lambda
I =     10 iota
K =   20 kappa
A =     1 alpha
E =     5 epsilon
K =   20 kappa
K =   20 kappa
L =   30 lambda
E =     8 eta
S =  200 sigma
I =     10 iota
A =     1 alpha
A =     1 alpha
P =   80 pi
O =   70 omicron
ST =   6 stigma*
A =     1 alpha
T = 300 tau
E =     8 eta
S =  200 sigma

* Stigma is a now obsolete Greek  character, but it appears in the New Testament in Rev 13:18 to give the value 666 (chi xi stigma – See Strong’s Concordance, # G5516).

P =   80 pi
A =     1 alpha
R = 100 rho
A =     1 alpha
D =     4 delta
O =   70 omicron
S =  200 sigma
I =     10 iota
S =  200 sigma





I unus 1
V quinque 5
X decem 10
L quinquaginta 50
C centum 100
D quingenti 500
M mille 1000


THE LITERAL MEANING: VICARIUS – substituting for, or in place of
FILII – means son
DEI – means GOD


V = 5    F  = no value D = 500
I = 1 I = 1 E = no value
C = 100 L = 50 I =  1
A = no value I = 1 ——–
R = no value I = 1 501
I = 1 ——–
U/V = 5 53
S = no value
——–     112 + 53 + 501 = 666


translated means Captain of the Clergy
translated means Vicar of the Court
D = 500
U =     5
X =   10
C = 100
L =   50
E = no value
R = no value
I =       1
L =   50
U =     5
D = 500
O = no value
V =     5
I =       1
C = 100
U =     5
S = no value



The numeric equivalents of Hebrew letters can be found in the Encyclopedia Britannica under “Languages of the World”, Table 50.

means the Roman Kingdom

R =   200 resh
O =       6 waw (vav)
M =     40 mem
I =       10 yod
I =       10 yod
TH = 400 taw


means the Roman Man

R = 200 resh
O =     6 waw (vav)
M =   40 mem
I =     10 yod
T = 400 taw
I =     10 yod



  • Lateinos, Ecclesia Italika, and Romith are cited as possible solutions by Johannes Gerhard (1582-1637), a Lutheran, in his Adnotationes in Apocalypsin, page 110.
  • Romith, Vicarius Filii Dei, Dux Cleri, Ordinarius Ovilis Christi Pastor, and Dic Lux are cited by the rector of Berlin, Andreas Helwig [or Helwich] (1572-1643) in his Antichristus Romanus, in proprio suo nomine, numerum illum Apocalypticum (DCLXVI) continente proditus, published in 1612 in Wittenberg.
  • Dux Cleri is cited by Walter Brute (or Britte), a fourteenth century follower of Wycliff, in his Registrum, page 356.
  • Ludovicus was proposed by James Bicheno (d. 1831), a British minister and author, applying it at the time to the French King Louis XIV, as the two-horned beast from the earth.
  • He Latine Basileia and Lateinos are cited by Alexander Campbell (1788-1866), founder of the Disciples of Christ, in A Debate on the Roman Catholic Religion of 1837.

See The PROPHETIC FAITH OF OUR FATHERS, The Historical Development of Prophetic Interpretation, by Le Roy Edwin Froom, Volumes II and IV, published by the Review and Herald Publishing Association, Washington D.C., Copyright 1948.

This relationship of 666 in Greek, Latin, and Hebrew is only one relatively small, yet important indicator that the Papacy is the Antichrist and the beast from the sea of Revelation 13. This association by itself proves little, as 666 can fit other people using the same methods. All the other biblical characteristics of the Antichrist must be considered and met as well, then this association becomes significant.

An objection has been raised that the method of gematria used above to calculate the Roman numeral value of phrases is incorrect. The word VICARIUS it is argued, must be calculated with letters grouped as follows: VI=6 C=100 A=0 R=0 IU= 4 S=0, for a value of only 110, instead of 112. This is patently incorrect. The value of each individual letter is to be added to yield a total value. It is totally irrelevant to the calculation if adjacent letters can be combined in groups to give a value. This assertion that letters must be grouped is nothing but sheer nonsense.

666 and CÆSAR NERO

Some will suggest that the book of Revelation was written only for those living at the time, and that 666 most probably applies to Cæsar Nero, who ruled Rome from 54 to 68 A.D., rather than someone from latter centuries. This point of view, which suggests Revelation had an immediate application to the first century, rather than being prophetic, is known as preterism, and is commonly held by the Catholic Church. So, just how is Nero linked to 666?

The preterist takes a relatively uncommon form of Nero’s name, Nero Cæsar or Cæsar Nero, and adds an “n”, resulting in Neron Cæsar. Next the Latin is transliterated into Aramaic, resulting in nrwn qsr, which when using the numeric equivalent of the letters, then adds up to 666 as follows:

Nun = 50
Resh = 200
Waw = 6
Nun = 50
Qoph = 100
Samech = 60
Resh = 200

An example of this spelling has apparently been recently discovered in one of the Dead Sea scrolls. If you use the same process, but without the added “n” the result is 616. Interestingly, some early manuscripts have 616 rather than 666, but even scholars such as Irenæus [A.D. 120-202] attribute the 616 to only a copyist error (Against Heresies: Book V Chapter XXX.), “this number [666] being found in all the most approved and ancient copies” [of the Apocalypse] and asserts that “men who saw John face to face bearing their testimony” [to it – 666].

There is a problem though with the above calculation. According to the rules of Jewish numerology, known as gematria, when the letter Nun appears a second time in a word, it is known as a “Final”, and takes the value of 700.* So to be precise, NRWN QSR actually adds up to 1316 and not 666.

*Source: Behind Numerology, by Shirley Blackwell Lawrence, copyright 1989, published by Newcastle Publishing Co., Inc., North Hollywood, California, ISBN 0-87877-145-X, page 41.

So the preterist calculation which attributes 666 to Nero, however, is nothing more than a rather desperate attempt to find some likely candidate for the Antichrist other than the Papacy.


Look up in Strong’s Concordance word 473 in the Greek dictionary. You will find the the word anti is often used to denote substitution-

473. anti, an-tee’; a prim. particle; opposite, i.e. instead or because of (rarely in addition to):–for, in the room of. Often used in composition to denote contrast, requital, *substitution*, correspondence, etc.

An example of how anti is used this way can be found in the words type and antitype, which are used with respect to Bible prophecy. The “type” is the pattern or symbol, and the antitype is the fulfillment. The Jewish Passover was a “type” and the crucifixion of Jesus is the “antitype” or fulfillment of the example of the type. You substitute the antitype into the symbolism of the type to arrive at the complete meaning.

The Catholic Church has essentially confirmed this usage of the word anti. In the 1994 Catholic Almanac on page 158 there is “the list of men who claimed or exercised the papal office in an uncanonical manner.” So these men tried to substitute themselves for the true Pope, and usurp that office, so to speak. The Catholic church denies the papal authority of the men on that list because they attempted a substitute (false) claim on the Papacy. That list is a list of ANTI-POPES! So the word anti can clearly mean a substitute for something.


Antichrist (word 500 in Strong’s Greek dictionary) can be correctly interpreted then, as someone who substitutes himself for Jesus Christ, the Son of God, just as an antipope substituted himself into the office of the Papacy.

The Vicar of Christ (Vicarius Christi)

“Vicar of Christ . . . Title used almost exclusively of the Bishop of Rome as successor of Peter and, therefore, the one in the Church who particularly takes the place of Christ; but used also of bishops in general and even of priests. First used by the Roman Synod of A.D. 495 to refer to Pope Gelasius; more commonly in Roman curial usage to refer to the Bishop of Rome during the pontificate of Pope Eugene III (1145-1153). Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) asserted explicitly that the Pope is the Vicar of Christ; further defined at the Council of Florence in the Decree for the Greeks (1439) and Vatican Council I in Pastor Aerternus (1870). The Second Vatican Council, in Lumen Gentium , n.27, calls bishops in general “vicars and legates of Christ.” All bishops are vicars of Christ for their local churches in their ministerial functions as priest, prophet, and king, as the Pope is for the universal church; the title further denotes they exercise their authority in the Church not by delegation from any other person, but from Christ Himself.”

Source: Catholic Dictionary, Peter M.J. Stravinskas, Editor, published by Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., Huntington, 1993, pp. 484-485.


Now look up the word vicarious in almost any common dictionary. Here is what you would find in the Webster Handy College Dictionary: “substituting for or, feeling in place of another.”

Also in the Webster’s II New Riverside Desk Dictionary for the definition of Vicar-

1. A parish priest in the Church of England.
2. A cleric in the Episcopal Church in charge of a chapel.
3. One who serves as a *substitute* for another.

A Vicar General is defined in the 1994 Catholic Almanac on page 330 as “a priest or bishop appointed by the bishop of a diocese to serve as his deputy, with ordinary executive power, in the administration of the diocese.” So a vicar serves in the place of (substituting for) the bishop, and assumes his power of office for certain duties.

So the Papal title of VICAR OF CHRIST which in Latin is VICARIUS CHRISTI, means a SUBSTITUTE FOR CHRIST, which is synonymous with Antichrist, i.e., assuming the power of God on earth! This blasphemous claim is made repeatedly by various Popes and is the very foundation of Roman Catholicism and it’s Papacy.

Some Catholics may protest that the Pope represents, but does not substitute for Jesus Christ, to avoid the association.

Now, from the Webster Hand College Dictionary, the definition of the word represent:

1. portray; depict; describe.
2. play the role of; impersonate.
3. denote; symbolize; stand for.
4. speak and act for; *be a substitute for*.
5. set forth; assert.
6. be composed of; consist in.

Clearly then, Vicar of Christ (Vicarius Christi) and Antichrist have exactly the same meaning. The Pope substitutes himself in place of God on earth, and that is *exactly* the meaning of Antichrist.


Some Catholics will claim that the title VICARIUS FILII DEI is an anti-catholic fabrication, a complete fake, never used by the Catholic church. One example of this was online at the Catholic  Envoy Magazine in the article titled Pope Fiction by Patrick Madrid (See Fiction 5). My complete discussion with Patrick Madrid.

Another Catholic apologist, Karl Keating of the organization Catholic Answers, in a debate in the fall of 1989 with Jose Ventilacion of Iglesia ni Cristo, stated the following:

The whole Iglesia argument against the Catholic Church is a big fraud, and let me prove it to you, from Pasugo [God’s Message]. I mentioned in my opening remarks, Iglesia is so fond of claiming that the Pope is the beast of Revelation. We know that the beast of Revelation has the number 666, right?

Now here is the argument, follow this carefully. The Pope’s have what is known as a tiara, that means a triple crown, a triply high crown, three levels. The beast can be identified. You find a man whose name, when added up adds up to 666, or a man whose title adds up to 666. Now, Iglesia ni Cristo says two things. One, that the title of the Pope, in Latin, is Vicarius Filii Dei, and second, that that title appears on the three bands of the tiara. I have in front of me a photo copy of the September 1976 issue of Pasugo. Here is a drawing made by the staff showing the tiara with those words on it. This is just a pen drawing. Two things to say. Does the title Vicarius Filii Dei add up to 666? Yes it does. But, is that a title of the Popes? Have they ever used it? No.

Do you know what Vicarius Filii Dei means? It means vicar, or representative, or agent, Vicar of the Son of God. The Pope has never used that title. No Pope ever. The official title of the pope, one of several, is Vicar of Christ, not Vicar of the Son of God. We Catholics claim he is the representative on earth of the God-man the Messiah, not of the second person of the Trinity as such. But you see, the Vicar of Christ, in Latin, is Vicarius Christi, and when you add up the letters, they don’t add up to 666.

So the first thing, the first thing, that the Iglesia ni Cristo has done, and as I say, it repeats this story every four issues or so in its magazine. The first thing is to claim that the title of the Pope is Vicarius Filii Dei. That’s a lie. It’s not at all. Why does it claim that? Because it wants to find a title that adds up to 666. It doesn’t care about the truth!

For those with high speed internet, see beginning at 38:50 minutes into this video of the debate at Google Videos. For those with dialup, here is audio of the above quote (mp3). Mr. Keating also stated this in print: “Vicarius Filii Dei never has been used as a title by any Pope.”, Catholicism and Fundamentalism, by Karl Keating, Ignatius Press, 1988, pg 221.

The following evidence is prove positive that VICARIUS FILII DEI is indeed genuine.

The Historical Proof.

The Donation of Constantine is the most famous forgery in European history, and was discovered in the Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals in the 9th century (c. 847-853). The forger is thought to have been Johannes Hymonides (John the Deacon of the 9th century). The Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals are fictitious letters alleged to be from early popes [Clement (A.D. 100) to Gregory the Great (A.D. 600)], collected by Isidore Mercator in the 9th century. Since the scholarly criticism of the fifteenth century they have been known to be forgeries and have been called “Pseudo-Isidorian Decretals” or False Decretals, to acknowledge that they are fraudulent.

The donation reads in part as follows in Latin: (caps added for emphasis) –

… ut sicut B. Petrus in terris VICARIUS FILII DEI esse videtur constitutus, ita et Pontifices, qui ipsius principis apostolorum gerunt vices, principatus potestatem amplius quam terrena imperialis nostrae serenitatis mansuetudo habere videtur, conscessam a nobis nostroque imperio obtineant…

In English that is-

… as the Blessed Peter is seen to have been constituted vicar of the Son of God on the earth, so the Pontiffs who are the representatives of that same chief of the apostles, should obtain from us and our empire the power of a supremacy greater than the clemency of our earthly imperial serenity is seen to have conceded to it,
(continuing beyond the Latin above)
choosing that same chief of the apostles and his vicars to be our constant intercessors with God. And to the extent of our earthly Imperial power, we have decreed that his holy Roman Church shall be honored with veneration, and that more than our empire and earthly throne the most sacred seat of the Blessed Peter shall be gloriously exalted, we giving to it power, and dignity of glory, and vigor, and honor imperial. And we ordain and decree that he shall have the supremacy as well over the four principal seats, Alexandria, Antioch, Jerusalem, and Constantinople, as also over all the churches of God in the whole earth. And the Pontiff, who at the time shall be at the head of the holy Roman church itself, shall be more exalted than, and chief over, all the priests of the whole world, and according to his judgment everything which is provided for the service of God and for the stability of the faith of Christians is to be administered.

Source: Christopher B. Coleman’s The Treatise of Lorenzo Valla on the Donation of Constantine, pp. 12,13 Copyright 1922 by Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.

Photos of a 16th century copy of the Donation previously online at the Vatican Secret Archive web site. The phrase vicarius filli Dei appears at the end of the 5th line down of the left page of the 7th photo. The image below is enlarged by 100% and sharpened to make it readable. See also this page, #11.

         rime  sanitati  comperi  me restitutum, utile
judicauimus   una  cum   nostris  satrapibus
omnibus  et  universo Senatu optimatibus It
et  cuncto populo Romanae gloriae imperij
subiacenti, ut sicut in terris vicarius filii Dei
esse  videtur  constitutus etiam et pontifices,
qui   ipsius  principes  Apostolorum  gerunt


The Donation of Constantine has two parts, the first relates the alleged conversion story of Constantine to the Christian faith, and is called the “Confessio”. The second part, called the “Donatio”, lists the authority, privileges and property bestowed on the papacy by the emperor. It was later incorporated into most of the medieval collections of Catholic canon law (Anselm’s, Cardinal Deusdedit’s(c. 1087), and Gratian’s Decretum (c. 1148) also known as Concordia Discordantium Canonum).University of Zaragosa Library Catalogue Entry Corpus Iuris Canonici. Decretum Gratiani, cum apparatu Bartholomaei Brixiensis et Johannis Semecae, Basileae : Johannes Froben , 13 junio 1493. (Has full document download, .djvu format)

  • Scanned page (.gif) – Distinctio 96 vicarius filii Dei (Quote of Donation of Constantine)

At right is the page of Gratian’s Decretum printed in 1512 with the title vicarius filii dei indicated by the arrow. The entire volume is online at Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, the title appears on photo 201.

The Donation of Constantine was cited in writing by no less than 10 Popes as proof of their civil authority and sovereignty over Rome, and what came to be known as the Papal States, which included a large portion of Italy. It was also eventually exposed as a pious fraud in 1440 by Laurentius Vallawho proved the donation had to have been written several centuries after the death of Constantine (337 A.D.) The Vatican condemned Valla’s scholarly work by listing it in the Index Librorum Prohibitorum, the Index of Prohibited Books of 1559 (a 1569 printing at Google books), and as late as 1580 the official edition of the Corpus Juris upheld the genuineness of the False Decretals. So the Donation of Constantine was held to be genuine for centuries.

Catholics finally abandoned the defense of the authenticity of the Donation of Constantine shortly after Cesare Baronius published his Annales Ecclesiastici in 1592, which admitted the fraud, although the Donation and title Vicarius Filii Dei continued to appear in Canon law and other Catholic publications well into the 19th century.

[Pg. 206] In his Annales Ecclesiastici (published 1588-1607) written in advocacy of the papacy and the Catholic Church, he [Baronius] took the position that the falsity of the Donation had been proven and, abandoning its defence, discussed it as a forgery. 2

[Pg. 207] … Starting with his apologetic attitude on behalf of the papacy, and the existence of Greek texts of the Donation, he advanced the theory that Greeks had perpetrated the forgery and used it to establish the antiquity of the See of Constantinople.

Under the year 324, nos. 117-123. Cf. also A. D. 1191, no 51.

Source: Constantine the Great and Christianity, by Christopher Bush Coleman, New York, The Columbia University Press; Longmans, Green & Co., Agents, 1914, pgs. 206, 207.

Annales Ecclesiastici: Auctore Cesare Baronio Sorano, Congregationis Oratorii Presbytero, Tomus Tertius [Volume 3], Romae, 1594, pg. 262.

Annales Ecclesiastici: Auctore Cesare Baronio Sorano, Congregationis Oratorii Presbytero, Tomus Tertius [Volume 3], Antverpiae, 1624, pg. 275.

Here are papal documents in which vicarius filii Dei appears in various forms:

1. Pope Leo IX, In Terra Pax Hominibus, 1054.
2. Pope Nicholaus IV, letter to Caydonius the Tartar, 1289.
3. Pope John XXII, Licet juxta doctrinam, 1327.
4. Pope Paul VI, Rivi Muniensis, 1965.
5. Pope Paul VI, Bafianae, 1968.



According to the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia entry on the Donation of Constantine:

The first pope who used it in an official act and relied upon it, was Leo IX; in a letter of 1054 to Michael Cærularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, he cites the “Donatio” to show that the Holy See possessed both an earthly and a heavenly imperium, the royal priesthood. … Gregory VII himself never quoted this document in his long warfare for ecclesiastical liberty against the secular power. But Urban II made use of it in 1091 to support his claims on the island of Corsica. Later popes (Innocent III, Gregory IX, Innocent IV) took its authority for granted (Innocent III, Sermo de sancto Silvestro, in P.L., CCXVII, 481 sqq.; Raynaldus, Annales, ad an. 1236, n. 24; Potthast, Regesta, no. 11,848), and ecclesiastical writers often adduced its evidence in favour of the papacy. The medieval adversaries of the popes, on the other hand, never denied the validity of this appeal to the pretended donation of Constantine … The authenticity of the document, as already stated, was doubted by no one before the fifteenth century.

Source: The 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia online at the New Advent web site. Scanned page of Volume 5, entry on Donation of Constantine, page 120.

The text of the letter of Leo IX to Michael Cærularius, “In terra pax hominibus”, is cited in the following work: Several Tracts Against Popery, by Michael Geddes, LL.D., London, 1715. See pages 12 – 20.

In this letter, which the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia deems an official act, Pope Leo IX was asserting his primacy as the Bishop of Rome, and to that end he reproduced that portion of the donation containing vicarius filii Dei (see page 12 at left below) for the edification of the Greek Patriarch. In the prologue of his citation of the donation, Leo IX said, in affirming the donation as genuine:

“But lest perhaps”, saith Leo, “some Scruple may still remain with you concerning it’s earthly Domination, (that is the Papacy’s) and that you may not so much as lightly suspect, that the holy Roman See seeks to vindicate and defend its unshaken Honour with foolish and old Wives Fables, we will here produce a few Privileges which were confirmed by the Hand of the said Constantine, … by which Truth will be confirmed, … we do not follow learned Fables, but do manifest unto you the Power of Our Lord Jesus Christ [2 Pet. 1:16], … Know ye that the same glorious Prince in the aforesaid Privilege, did, … thus promulgate the special Dignity of the Roman Church”. (pgs. 18, 19)

As Geddes says:

“Was there ever any Truth spoke of with more Assurance, or with a greater Air of Devotion, than Constantine’s Donation, and the Roman Church’s never having made use of Fables, as spoke of here by Leo.”
“As Leo is, you see, in his Prologue to this Donation, very peremptory that it is authentick, so he triumphs in his Epilogue to it, as if its being so were made indubitable by him, saying,” … ‘Wherefore Truth being supported by these and many more such Testimonies, does not blush, but impudent Vanity is confounded.’  “If this Pope had any Shame in him, he would never have ventured on this Occasion to have spoke either of Blushing or of Impudence; or if he had had any Religion, would he have dared to have made such a Grimace as this.”
“For as if he himself believed all that he saith here so positively, and with so great an Air of Religion, concerning these Donations being indubitably authentick, he was certainly the simplest and most credulous Man that ever put Pen to Paper: So if he did not believe it himself, as it is more than probable he did not, he was a most profane and vile Hypocrite to cant about it, as he does. However, what this Pope saith here so dogmatically of the Instrument of Constantine’s Donation, and its being authentick, ought to be remembered.” (pgs. 19, 20)

The letter begins with the Intitulatio: “Leo episcopus, servus servorum Dei”, which is characteristic of official papal bulls. It was addressed to Michael Cærularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, and Leo, Metropolitan of Achrida, and was in response to a letter sent by Leo, Metropolitan of Achrida to John, Bishop of Tranum (Bulgaria), that categorically attacked the customs of the Latin Church that differed from those of the Greeks. Especially criticized were the Roman traditions of fasting on the Saturday Sabbath and consecration of unleavened bread. Leo IX in his letter accused Constantinople of historically being the source of heresy and claimed in emphatic terms the primacy of the Bishop of Rome over even the Patriarch of Constantinople*, who would have none of it. After Leo’s assertion of primacy was summarily rejected, Patriarch Cærularius was excommunicated by papal legates who entered Constantinople’s St. Sophia during the liturgy on July 16, 1054, and publicly threw down the Bull that anathematized Cerularius on the altar table. By that dramatic act, the Church was split in two in the Great Schism that has ever since divided East and West.

* “Pope Leo IX. cites long extracts of it [the Donation] in his letter to Michael Cerularius, patriarch of Constantinople, in 1054, in order to establish against the Greeks the spiritual and temporal jurisdiction of the Holy See.2″—  The Power of the Pope During the Middle Ages, by M. Gosselin, Vol. 1., Translated by Rev. Matthew Kelly, London, pg. 318.

The full Latin text of the epistle of Pope Leo IX is online:

The full Latin text of the Donation of Constantine is online:

Vicar of Jesus Christ
Pope Innocent III — (1198-1216) — Inter corporalia

Pope Innocent III popularized the title “Vicar of Jesus Christ”. In Inter corporalia, he claimed that as the Vicar of Jesus Christ, only the Roman Pontiff could remove or transfer bishops, because he acted not with human, but with divine power and authority reserved for the Roman Pontiff alone:

Non enim humana sed potius divina potestate conjugium spirituale dissolvitur, cum per translationem, vel depositionem auctoritate Romani Pontificis (quem constat esse vicarium Jesu Christi), episcopus ab ecclesia removetur: et ideo tria haec, quae praemisimus, non tam constitutione canonica, quam institutione divina soli sunt Romano Pontifici reservata. — Official 1582 “In Aedibus Populi Romani” edition of Corpus Juris Canonici, Decretal. Greg. IX., de Transl., lib. i. tit. 7, c. 2, Inter corporalia, col. 213, pg. 107.

For it is not by human but rather divine power that spiritual marriage is dissolved, when as by translation or cession by the authority of the Bishop of Rome (Whom it is known to be the Vicar of Jesus Christ) a Bishop is removed from his Church: These three are reserved to the Roman Pontiff alone—not so much by Canonical institution as by Divine institution.

In Licet in tantum, Pope Innocent III stated that he was the successor of Peter and Vicar of Jesus Christ:

Sicut legitimi matrimonii vinculum, quod est virum est et uxorem, homo dissolvere nequit, Domino dicente in Evangelio, Quod Deus conjunxit, homo non separet (Matth. xix,6) : sic et spirituale foedus conjugii, quod est inter episcopum et Ecciesiam, quod in electione initiatum, ratum in confirmatione et in consecratione intelligitur consummatum, sine illius auctoritate solvi non potest, qui successor est Petri et vicarius Jesu Christi. — Official 1582 “In Aedibus Populi Romani” edition of Corpus Juris Canonici, Decretal. Greg. IX., de Transl., lib. i. tit. 7, c. 4, Licet in tantum, col 218, pg. 109.

For instance, man can not overthrow the bond of a legitimate marriageof husband and wife, the Lord saying in the Gospel, That which God hath joined together, let not man put asunder (Matt. xix, 6): so also is the spiritual covenant of marriage, which is between the bishop and the church, which begins in the election, is ratified in confirmation and in the consecration is completed, it is understood, can not be dissolved without the authority of he who is the successor of Peter, and the vicar of Jesus Christ.
Jam ergo videtis quis iste servus, qui super familiam constituitur, profecto vicarius Jesu Christi, successor Petri, Christus Domini, Deus Pharaonis : inter Deum et hominem medius constitutus, citra Deum, sed ultra hominem : minor Deo, sed major homine : qui de omnibus judicat, et a nemine judicatur : Apostoli voce pronuntians, < qui me judicat, Dominus est (1 Cor. IV) >

Now, therefore, you see this servant, who is appointed over the family, verily the vicar of Jesus Christ, the successor of Peter, the Lord’s Anointed, the God of Pharaoh, placed in the middle between God and man, this side of God, but  beyond man, inferior to  God, but greater than  man: who judges all, and is judged of no man: The Apostles affirming voice, “he who judges me is the Lord.” (1 Cor 4:4)

Innocent III, Sermo II, In Consecratione Pontficis Maximi, Migne, Patrologia Latina, vol. 217, col. 658.

In the 12th century, the canonist John the Deacon of the Lateran wrote Liber de ecclesia Lateranensi (On the Lateran Church) in which the text of the Donation of Constantine appeared, including Vicarius Filii Dei.

  • See Migne, Gregorii Papaei, Cognomento Magni, Opera Omnia, Book IV, Liber de ecclesia Lateranensi, pg. 1389.
  • See Migne, Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Book CXCIV (194), Liber de ecclesia Lateranensi, Col 1545.
St. John Lateran Cathedral figures prominently in Bible prophecy as it has the official “cathedra” or throne of the Bishop of Rome, it is the oldest or “Mother” church of Christendom, and it was in fact formerly the palace of the emperor, bequeathed to the Pope when Constantine vacated Rome for Constantinople, leaving the Bishop of Rome to fill the vacuum. This is mentioned in both the Donation and in the book of Revelation:

Rev 13:2 And the beast [papal Rome] which I saw was like unto a leopard [Greece], and his feet were as the feet of a bear [Medo-Persia], and his mouth as the mouth of a lion [Babylon]: and the dragon [pagan Rome / Satan] gave him [the papacy] his power, and his seat [cathedra, St. John Lateran], and great authority.

At left is Pope Benedict XVI on the throne in the apse of St. John Lateran Cathedral, formerly the palace of Emperor Constantine the Great, now the official cathedra of the Bishop of Rome. St. John Lateran is located on one of the seven hills of Rome. See: What Does The Word Vatican Mean?

Vicar of God
Pope Nicholas II — 1278 — Fundamenta Militantis Ecclesiae

Vicar of Christ (Lat. Vicarius Christi), a title of the pope implying his supreme and universal primacy, both of honour and of jurisdiction, over the Church of Christ. … The title Vicar of God used for the pope by Nicholas III is employed as an equivalent for Vicar of Christ.” — Vicar of Christ entry, Catholic Encyclopedia, 1913, Volume 15, pg. 403.

In Fundamenta Militantis Ecclesiae, a papal constitution issued on July 18, 1278, Pope Nicholas III decreed that the city of Rome was to be governed by a senate composed of Roman citizens, but only with his express papal approval. (see this book)

Decet ipsius nullo modo vacillare iudicia: ut fratres ipsos nullus saecularis potestatis metus exterreat, nullus temporalis favor absorbeat, nullus eis terror immineat, nihil eos a veri consilii soliditate removeat: quin, per ipsum Romanum Pontificem in quibuscumque negotiis contingeret eorum peti consilia, in consulendo per omnia liberi, eidem Romano Pontifici in omnibus, quae pro tempore imminent, libere consulant, et assistant: ipsaque Romani Pontificis Vicarii Dei, quae suis temporibus occurrerit, electio, et eorundem cardinalium, (cum expedierit) facienda promotio, in omni libertate procedant. — Official 1582 “In Aedibus Populi Romani” edition of Corpus Juris Canonici, Liber Sextus, Book 1, tit. vi – De electione, cap. 17 – Fundamenta Militantis Ecclesiae, col. 129, (Romani Pontificis vicarij Dei occurs at bottom of column 132), pg. 68. Also see footnote z – sed Dei vicarius, and footnote t  – vicarij Dei, at the bottom of the page.

Vicar of Jesus Christ Son of God
Pope Nicholas IV — 1289 — Letter to Caydonius the Tatar

Pope Nicolaus IV in a letter dated July 13th, 1289, inviting Caydonius the Tatar to embrace the Christian faith, assured him that the Roman Pontiff’s office of Vicar of Jesus Christ the Son of God was in fact a divine appointment:

Prudentia, magnificentia, auctoritate eminebat inter Tartaros Caydonius Princeps.
Hunc ad fidem pertrahere conatur Nicolaus ratus multos alios Tartariae; principes movendos esse ad eam amplectendam ejus principis auctoritate.
Ne miretur Caydonius, si a Romano Pontifice per litteras invitatur ad Christianam fidem amplectendam. Ex munere enim sibi divinitus imposito ita agit, et ita illi est agendum; Vicarius enim Jesu Christi Filii Dei est.
Hic illi explanat Mysterium Incarnationis, vitam, mortemque Chrifti pro hominum salute latam.
Quare quam maxime potest eum orat, obtestaturque, si quicquam aeternam salutem suam cordi habet, ut Chriftianae fidei nomen det.
D. Reate III. Id. Jul. P. a. II. a. D. 1289.


Augustinus Triumphus — (1243-1328) — Summa de potestate ecclesiastica
14th Century Canon Lawyer Applies Vicarius Filii Dei To The Pope

Agostino Trionfo of Ancona (Augustinus Triumphus) 1243-1328 A.D.
Summa de potestate ecclesiastica (Summary On The Power Of The Church)

Trionfo was expressly commissioned by Pope John XXII to produce a book that would set forth and defend the ecclesiastical and temporal authority of the papacy. The result was Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, which was completed in the year 1320 and dedicated to the same Pope, and is considered the high water mark of papal pretentions.

The Summa de potestate ecclesiastica of Augustinus Triumphus has been described as ‘one of the half dozen most influential and most important books ever written’ on the nature of the papal supremacy in the Middle ages, 1
C. H. McIlwain, The Growth of Political Thought in the West (London, 1932), p. 278.  — The Problem of Sovereignty in the Later Middle Ages: The Papal Monarchy with Augustinus Triumphus and the Publicists by Michael Wilks, Cambridge University Press, 2008, ISBN 052107018X, 9780521070188, p. 2

Augustinus’ Summa de potestate ecclesiastica is an extensive treatise, counting over 600 double column pages in the early printed editions. It consists of 112 questions, divided into three major parts. There are at least twenty-four extant manuscripts of the complete work, and another fifteen containing fragments. The Summa received five editions in the fifteenth century, and the four successive editions in Rome, beginning in 1582 and ending in 1585, which was the last edition of Augustinus’ work. — High Way To Heaven, The Augustinian Platform Between Reform and Reformation, 1292-1524, by Eric Leland Saak, Leiden; Boston, MA: Brill, 2002, page 50.

The University of Maryland claims 29 editions of Summa were published between 1320 and 1584 in Latin, and it is held by 55 libraries worldwide.

Note that Summa was coming off the presses of Rome during the early years of the Catholic Church’s enforcement of the Tridentine Index of Forbidden Books (Index Librorum Prohibitorum), which began in 1546 under Pope Pius IV and the Council of Trent, and remained in effect for over 300 years. The 1582 printing is prefaced by an endorsement by F. Augustinus Fiuizanius Romanus, Sacrista, Et Ordinis Augustiniani, Vicarius Generalis, under the name of Pope Gregory XIII. The crest of Pope Gregory XIII, with the winged dragon, appears on the title page, as shown below. In Summa, Agostino applied Vicarius Filii Dei to the papacy.Refer to the following guide for the Latin and corresponding English for each edition of Summa. The Latin spelling varies slightly depending on abbreviations used.
  • Question 6 Ad 1, solus enim Papa dicitur esse Vicarius Dei: … [Only the Pope is said to be the Vicar of God: …]
  • Question 22 Ad 2, Sed Papa est vicarius Dei in terris. [Indeed the Pope is the vicar of God on the earth.]
  • Question 35 Ad 5, Sed Papa est vicarius Dei. [Indeed the Pope is the vicar of God.]
  • Question 36 Ad 7, … ut sicut beatus Petrus in terris vicarius filii Dei esse videtur constitutus, … [… as the Blessed Peter is seen to have been constituted vicar of the Son of God on the earth, …] (Quote of Donation of Constantine)
  • Question 37 Ad 3, Constantinus huiusmodi translationem fecit auctoritate summi pontificis, qui tamquam vicarius Dei filii [filius] coelestis imperatoris iurisdictionem habet universalem super omnia regna et imperia. [Constantine transferred authority to the supreme pontiff, who is the vicar of God’s son, heaven’s commander in chief, with universal governmental jurisdiction over all kingdoms and empires.]
  • Question 37 Ad 5, Qualitercunque tamen institutio Imperii sit variata: nulli tamen dubium esse debet quin summa pontifex, quem Constantinus vicarium esse dei filii firmiter confessus est imperatorem possit eligere quemcumque et undecumque sibi placet in auxilium et defensionem ecclesiae. [Yet never the less in instituting changes of rulers: there can be no doubt that the supreme pontiff whom Constantine enduringly confesses to be the vicar of God’s son, the commander in chief, is able to select whomever from wherever he pleases to aid and defend the church.]
  • Question 43 Ad 3, … ut sicut beatus Petrus in terris vicarius filii Dei esse videtur constitutus, … [… as the Blessed Peter is seen to have been constituted vicar of the Son of God on the earth, …] (Quote of Donation of Constantine)
  • Question 44 Ad 8, Papa est Vicarius Christi. [The Pope is the Vicar of Christ.]
  • Question 45 Ad 2, … quòd Papa vicarius lesu Christi, vice Dei viventis, in toto orbe terrarum spiritualium, & temporalium habet universalum iurisdictionem: …” [… the fact is the Pope is the vicar of Jesus Christ, in the place of the living God, has universal spiritual and temporal jurisdiction of the entire globe of the earth: …]
  • Question 50 Ad 2 addresses the Pope changing the Sabbath commandment (see below).
  • Question 61 Ad 1, Est enim ipse papa Dei filii vicarius. [The pope is in fact himself the vicar of the son of God.]
  • Question 61 Ad 4, Unde in persona Summi Pontificis vicarii Iesu Christi scribitur Ezec. 34. [Therefore the role of the Supreme Pontiffs is vicars of Jesus Christ as written in Ezek. 34:10-12.]
  • Question 101 Ad 7, Sed Papa Christi vicarius est. [Indeed the Pope is Christ’s vicar.]

1473 edition of Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, Augustinus Triumphus
Bayerische StaatsbibliothekHigh Resolution Color Photos   (Has full document download, .pdf format – 328 Mb).

1475 edition of Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, Agostino Trionfo, Arnold Ther Hoernen, Cologne.
Die Inkunabelsammlung der Universitäts- und Stadtbibliothek KölnHigh Resolution Color Photos

1476 edition of Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, Agostino Trionfo, Antonio Bartolomei Miscomini, Venezia.
Access document online at Gallica. (Has full document download, .pdf format – 92 Mb).

1479 edition of Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, Agostino Trionfo, impr. Francisci de Cinquinis, Rome.
Access document online at Gallica. (Has full document download, .pdf format –  79 Mb).

1484 edition of Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, Agostino Trionfo, Petrus Ungarus, Lugduni.
University of Zaragosa Library Catalogue Entry  (Has full document download, .djvu format – 27 Mb)

1487 edition of Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, Agostino Trionfo, Johannes Leoviller, Venezia.
Biblioteca Digital Hiica  (Has full document download, .pdf format – 20 Mb)

1582 edition of Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, Augustini Triumphi, Vincentium Accoltum, Romae.
Universidad de Granada (Has full document download, pages 1-318 .tif, 69 Mb)

1584 edition of Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, Augustini Triumphi, Georgij Ferrarij, Romae.
Google Books. (Has full document download, 76 Mb.)

Dr. Johannes Quasten (1900-1987), a renowned Catholic patristics scholar, considered perhaps the greatest authority in this field, when questioned in 1943 about Vicarius Filii Dei, freely admitted in writing that “The title Vicarius Filii Dei as well as the title Vicarius Christi is very common as the title for the Pope.” So, it is reasonable to assume that Dr. Quasten was indeed aware of the title appearing in Summa, and in Leo IX’s letter, thus his concession that it is very common. See The Search to Document and Authenticate Vicarius Filii Dei.

These extraordinary and blasphemous claims in Summa deserve special attention:

Question 6 Ad 1:

Secunda ratio accipitur ex parte Papae. solus Papa dicitur esse Vicarius Dei: quia solum quod ligatur vel solvitur per eum, habetur solutum et ligatum per ipsum Deum. Sententia igitur Papae et sententia Dei vna sententia est: sicut una sententia est Papae, et auditoris eius. Cum igitur appellatio semper fiat a minori iudice ad superiorem, sicut nullus est major seipso: ita nulla appellatio tenet, facta a Papa ad Deum: quia unum consistorium est ipsius Papae et ipsius Dei: cuius consistorij clauiger et ostiarius est ipse Papa. Nullus ergo potest appellare a Papa ad Deum. Nullus ergo potest appellare a Papa ad Deum, sicut nulla potest intrare ad consistorium Dei, nisi mediante Papa, qui est aeternae vitae cónsistorij clauiger, et ostiarius et sicut nullus pot appellare ad se ipsum: ita nullas pót appellare à Papa ad Deu. quia vna sententia est, et vna curia Dei, et Pape.

Second reason considering the role of the Pope. Only the Pope is said to be the Vicar of God: because he alone is able to bind and loose, possessing alone loosing and binding given to him by God. The decision of the Pope and the decision of God constitute one decision, just as the decision of the Pope and his disciple are the same. Since, therefore, an appeal is always taken from an inferior judge to a superior, as no one is greater than himself, so no appeal holds when made from the Pope to God, because there is one consistory of the Pope himself and of God Himself, of which consistory the Pope himself is the key-bearer and the doorkeeper. Therefore no one can appeal from the Pope to God, as no one can enter into the consistory of God without the mediation of the Pope, who is the key-bearer and the doorkeeper of the consistory of eternal life; and as no one can appeal to himself, so no one can appeal from the Pope to God, because there is one decision and one court of God, and the Pope.

Question 9: De Exhibitione Honoris Papae. (pg. 71, 1582 edition.)
Displaying honor to the Pope.

Articulus 1:
Utrum honor, qui debetur Christo secundum quod Deus, debeatur Papae.
Whether the honor due Christ as God is due the Pope.

Ad Primum sic proceditur. Videtur enim, quod honor, qui debetur Christo secundum, quod Deus debeatur Papae. Quia honor debetur potestati: sed una est potestas Christi secundum quod Deus, et Papae. quod probatur.

So proceeding on the first point. It is to be seen as fact that the honor that is due Christ as God is due also to the Pope: because the honor is due the power, and the power of Christ as God and the [power of the] Pope are one, which is shown to be true.

So, from the first apparent use of Vicarius Filii Dei by a Pope in an official act in 1054 A.D., to the last printed edition of Trionfo’s Summa de potestate ecclesiastica in 1585 in Rome, is a of 531 years.


Satan’s policy in this final conflict with God’s people is the same that he employed in the opening of the great controversy in heaven. He professed to be seeking to promote the stability of the divine government, while secretly bending every effort to secure its overthrow. And the very work which he was thus endeavoring to accomplish he charged upon the loyal angels. The same policy of deception has marked the history of the Roman Church. It has professed to act as the vicegerent of Heaven, while seeking to exalt itself above God and to change His law. (Great Controversy, 591)

Below is Question 50 (L) of Summa regarding the Third Commandment ( TERTII PRAECEPTI ) from the 1582 edition:

These 6 points regarding papal ability to grant dispensation, are proposing that Pope’s innately possess the authority to overrule the Sabbath commandment of God as written in the Bible, and so are able to change it in any aspect, however they should decree.

Nunc considerandum est de dispesatione tertij praecepti.
Now we must consider dispensation of the third commandment.

Circa quod queruntur sex.
In regard to six arguments.

Primo, Utrum Papa possit dispensare, quòd dies Sabbati servetur secundum sensum spiritualem, non litteralem.
First, whether the pope can grant dispensation, that the Sabbath day should be observed in a spiritual sense, not literal [according to the Bible].

Secundo, Utrum Papa possit dispensare, quòd dies Sabbati in diem Dominicam sit mutata.
Secondly, whether the pope can grant dispensation, changing the sabbath day to the Lord ‘s day.

Tertio, Utrum Papa possit dispensare, quòd dies Dominica fiant servilia opera.
Third, whether the Pope can grant dispensation, permitting servile work on the Lord’s day.

Quarto, Utrum Papa debeat prohibere strictius opera servilia fieri in die Dominica, quàm fuerint prohibita in die Sabbati.
Fourth, whether the Pope may strictly prohibit servile work on the Lord’s day, as it was prohibited on the Sabbath.

Quinto, Utrum Papa possit dispensare, quòd in dies Dominica fiat forum rerum emptionis, & venditionis.
Fifth, whether the Pope can grant dispensation, permitting market buying and selling on the Lord’s day.

Sexto, Utrum Papa possit dispensare, quòd in dies Dominica committatur bellum.
Sixth, whether the Pope can grant dispensation, so that war may be waged on the Lord’s day.

The resolution of the point under Article 2 (shown above) reads:

Dies Sabbati, in Diem Dominicam iure à Papa mutata est, propter significatorum preeminentiam, factorum excellentiam, temporumque convenientiam.

The Sabbath day law has been changed by the Pope to the Lord’s day, due to the preeminence of things signified, and the excellent factors in agreement with time and circumstance.

So, the same document that applies Vicarius Filii Dei to the Pope, credits the papacy with changing God’s Commandment from the seventh-day Sabbath to the first day of the week, Sunday!

The full Third Commandment pages (Question 50) from the 1582 edition of Summa:
Pages are reduced 50% to only 200k for dialup users.

History identifies the Pope that decreed the change from the Sabbath to Sunday as Sylvester I.

Augustinus Triumphus is also described as “a major canon lawyer of the 13th century, and a simply rabid defender of extreme papal supremacy.” See also Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages entry on Augustine of Ancona. Here is some additional information regarding him:

The Problem of Sovereignty in the Later Middle Ages: The Papal Monarchy with Augustinus Triumphus and the Publicists
By Michael Wilks
Published by Cambridge University Press, 2008
ISBN 052107018X, 9780521070188

p. 2

The Summa de potestate ecclesiastica of Augustinus Triumphus has been described as ‘one of the half dozen most influential and most important books ever written’ on the nature of the papal supremacy in the Middle ages, 1

C. H. McIlwain, The Growth of Political Thought in the West (London, 1932), p. 278.

p. 272

Est enim ipse papa Dei Filii vicarius. — Augustinus Triumphus, (Agostino Trionfo of Ancona, 1243-1328) Summa de potestate ecclesiastica (The Power of the Church), lxi. I, p. 321.

p. 543

… quem Constantinus vicarium esse dei filii firmiter confessus est … — Augustinus Triumphus, Summa de potestate ecclesiastica (The Power of the Church), xxxvii, 5, p. 222.

p. 545

Constantinus huiusmodi translationem fecit auctoritate summi pontificis, qui tamquam vicarius Dei Filii [filius] coelestis imperatoris iurisdictionem habet universalem super omnia regna et imperia  — Augustinus Triumphus, Summa de potestate ecclesiastica (The Power of the Church) xxxvii. 3 and 3 ad I, p. 221.




p. 80

Triumphus, an Italian, born in Ancona, 1243, made archbishop of Nazareth and died at Naples, 1328, was a zealous advocate of Boniface VIII. His leading treatise, The Power of the Church,—Summa de potestate ecclesiastica, — vindicates John XXII. for his decision on the question of evangelical poverty and for his opposition to the emperor’s dominion in Italy.155  The pope has unrestricted power on the earth. It is so vast that even he himself cannot know fully what he is able to do.156  His judgment is the judgment of God. Their tribunals are one.157  His power of granting indulgences is so great that, if he so wished, he could empty purgatory of its denizens provided that conditions were complied with.158

155 For edd. of Triumphus’ tract, see Potthast, Bibl. Hist. under Triumphus. Riezler, p. 286, dates the tract 1324-1328, Haller, p. 83, 1322, Scholz, p. 172, 1320. See Poole, 252 sq.
156 Nec credo, quod papa possit scire totum quod potest facere per potentiam suam, 32. 3, quoted by Döllinger, Papstthum, p. 433.
157 This famous passage runs sententia papae sententia Dei una sententia est, quia unum consistorium est ipsius papal et ipsius Dei … cujus consistorii claviger et ostiarius est ipse papa. See Schwab, Gerson, p. 24.
158 Totum purgatorium evacuare potest, 3. 28. Döllinger, p. 451, says of Triumphus’ tract that on almost every page the Church is represented as a dwarf with the head of a giant, that is, the pope.

Licet juxta doctrinam – Pope John XXII, Oct. 23, 1327

(4) Those vain, or rather lying, talkers say that all priests, whether pope, archbishop or simple priest, are by Christ’s appointment equal in authority and jurisdiction; that, in so far as one has more than another, this is according as the Emperor has conceded to one or another either more or less; and that as he concedes to one, so he may withdraw it, such doctrines as these are contrary to the truth, and smack of heretical pravity.

The Christian Emperor Constantine testified, saying: the Blessed Peter is seen to have been constituted vicar of the Son of God on earth. From this it follows self-evidently that Peter can be called the supreme head of the universal Church according to the way that holy Scripture explains it, as the ruler of a multitude is said to be the head. So we read in Joel* [then follows a quote of Hosea 1:11 from the Vulgate] “Then shall the children of Judah and the children of Israel be gathered together, and appoint themselves one head, and they shall come up out of the land: for great shall be the day of Jezreel.”

Hoc ille imperator Christianissimus Constantinus aliquando testatus est dicens: Beatus Petrus videbatur in terris vicarius Dei filii constitutus. Ex hoc etiam sequitur evidenter, quod Petrus caput universalis Ecclesiae potest dici juxta morem illum sacrae Scripturae, quo rector alicujus multitudinis dicitur esse caput. Unde legitur in Joele* …

* John XXII errs in attributing the quote to Joel, which has an asterisk to the side note indicating Hosea.

Discovered in German and Latin by Stephen Emse while researching for The Truth About 666 and the Story of the Great Apostasy, Three Volumes in One, by Edwin de Kock, Copyright © 2011 Edwin de Kock. See pgs. 306-310 for a detailed discussion of Licet juxta doctrinam (excerpt below).

 — Römisches Bullarium, oder, Auszüge der merkwürdigsten päpstlichen Bullen, übers. von L.M. Eisenschmid, 1831, pg. 130.
 — Thesaurus Novum Anecdotorum, Tomus Secundus, in quo continentur urbani Papae IV epistolae LXIV, Clementis Papae IV epistolae DCCXI … alia que plura de Schismate pontificium Avenionesium monumenta, Edmond Martène, Ursin Durand, Lutetiae Parisiorum, 1717, pg. 706, see middle of right column.

See also:
 — Annales Ecclesiastici, Baronius, Vol. 24, published Barri-Ducis, 1872, pgs. 322 to 323 (339 in pdf reader). See paragraph 30, 5th & 6th line from bottom.
 — Magnum Bullarium Romanum: A Beato Leone Magno Usque Ad S.D.N …, Volume 9, By Laerzio Cherubini, Angelo Maria Cherubini, Johannes Paulus (a Roma), Angelo Auda, pg. 168, see middle of right column.
Foedera, conventiones, literae et cujuscunque generis acta publica inter … by Thomas Rymer, Robert Thomas Sanderson, p. 317, middle of left column.

    John XXII began his bull of 23 October 132738 with the words “Licet juxta doctrinam,” by which it is named. Amongst other things, he “affirmed that our Lord and His Apostles held true ownership in the temporal things which they possessed, and that the goods of the Church were not rightfully at the disposition of the emperor.”39
This document also deals with Petrine primacy, mingling Biblical arguments with an appeal to the Donation. John XXII declared that nobody should entertain any doubts about this matter, since “Constantine, that most Christian emperor, at some time testified to it, saying: It appears that the blessed Peter was appointed as the vicarius Filii Dei on earth. From this it follows self-evidently that Peter can be called the head of the universal Church according to the way that holy Scripture explains it . . .”40
In the original, that key sentence—with a slightly different word order—quotes familiar words: “Hoc ille imperator Christianissimus Constantinus testatus est dicens: Beatus Petrus videtur in terris vicarius Dei filii constitutus. Ex hoc etiam sequitur evidenter, quod Petrus caput universalis Ecclesiae potest dici juxta morem illum sacrae Scripturae . . .”41 Eisenschmid’s Römisches Bullarium translates the title as Statthalter des Sohnes Gottes.42

Source: The Truth About 666 and the Story of the Great Apostasy, Three Volumes in One, by Edwin de Kock, Copyright © 2011 Edwin de Kock, pgs. 308-309.

Pope Eugenius IV
Session 6, 6 July 1439

Definition of the holy ecumenical synod of Florence

Item, diffinimus sanctam Apostolicam sedem et Romanum Pontificem in universum orbem tenere primatum, et ipsum Pontificem Romanum successorem esse beati Petri principis Apostolorum et verum Christi vicarium totiusque Ecclesiae caput et omnium christianorum patrem ac doctorem exsistere; et ipsi in beato Petro pascendi, regendi ac gubernandi universalem Ecclesiam a Domino nostro Iesu Christo plenam potestatem traditam esse; quemadmodum etiam in gestis oecumenicorum Conciliorum et in sacris Canonibus continetur.

We likewise define that the holy Apostolic See, and the Roman Pontiff, hold the primacy throughout the entire world; and that the Roman Pontiff himself is the successor of blessed Peter, the chief of the Apostles, and the true vicar of Christ, and that he is the head of the entire Church, and the father and teacher of all Christians; and that full power was given to him in blessed Peter by Our Lord Jesus Christ, to feed, rule, and govern the universal Church; just as is contained in the acts of the ecumenical Councils and in the sacred canons.”

Source: Pope Eugene IV, Papal Bull Laetentur Caeli, dated July 6th, 1439.
Second Latin source, The Council of Florence, see pgs. 414-415.

See also: Denzinger, The Sources of Catholic Dogma, Translated by Roy J. Deferrari, from the Thirtieth Edition of Henry Denzinger’s Enchiridion Symbolorum, published by Herder & Co., Copyright 1954, page 220 (pg. 252 in reader), #694.

Session 7—4 September 1439

Decree of the council of Florence against the synod at Basel
Decretum concilii Florentini contra synodum Basiliensem

Sic et nos quibus, licet immeritis, Dominus noster Jesus Christus populum suum committere dignatus est, audientes illud execrabile scelus, quod quidam perditi homines Basileae commorantes ad scindendam sancte Ecclesiae unitatem proximis diebus machinati fuerunt: metuentes ne quos incautos seducant fraudibus et venenis inficiant, ad ipsum Domini nostri Jesu Christi populum nobis creditum clamare pari voce compellimur: recedite a tabernaculis hominum impiorum, maxime cum longe amplior sit plebs Christiana quam illa tunc Judaeorum, Ecclesia sanctior quam synagoga et Christi vicarius ipso Moyse auctoritate et dignitate superior. (Source)

Similarly we too to whom, though unworthy, the lord Jesus Christ has deigned to entrust his people, as we hear of the abominable crime that certain wicked men dwelling in Basel have plotted in these days so as to breach the unity of holy church, and since we fear that they may seduce some of the unwary by their deceits and inject them with their poisons, are forced to proclaim in like words to the people of our lord Jesus Christ entrusted to us, depart from the tents of these wicked men, particularly since the Christian people is far more numerous than the Jewish people of those days, the church is holier than the synagogue, and the vicar of Christ is superior in authority and status even to Moses. (Source)

Pope Pius II — Jan. 18, 1459 — Execrabilis

Execrabilis, et pristinis temporibus inauditus tempestate nostra inolevit abusus, ut a Romano Pontifice, Jesu Christi Vicario, (cui dictum est in persona Beati Petri) “Pasce oves meas,” et “Quodcumque ligaveris super terram, erit ligatum et in caelis,” nonnulli spiritu rebellionis imbuti, non sanioris cupiditate judicii, commissi evasione peccati, ad futurum Concilium provocare praesumant, quod quantum sacris canonibus adversetur, quantumque Reipublicae Christianae noxium sit, quisquis non ignarus jurium intelligere potest. (Source)

An execrable, and in former ages unheard-of abuse, has sprung up in our time, namely that some people, imbued with the spirit of rebellion, presume to appeal to a future Council, from the Roman Pontiff, the Vicar of Jesus Christ, to whom it was said in the person of blessed Peter: “Feed my sheep” and “Whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth shall be bound also in Heaven”; they do not do so because they are anxious to obtain sounder judgment, but in order to escape the consequences of their sins, and anyone who is not ignorant of the laws can realize how contrary this is to the sacred canons and how detrimental to the Christian community. (Source)

Pope Pius II — Apr. 26, 1463 — Retractatio: In minoribus agentibus

§.3. … in Ecclesia militanti, quae instar triumphantis habet, vnus est omnium moderator & arbiter, IESV CHRISTI Vicarius, a quo, tanquam capite, omnis in subjecta membra potestas & auctoritas derivatur, quae a Christo Domino Deo nostro fine medio in ipsum influit. (Source).

§.3. … in the militant Church, which resembleth the triumphant, there is one moderator and judge of all, the vicar of Jesus Christ, from whom, as from the head, all power and authority is derived to the subject members; the which doth immediately flow into it from the Lord Christ. (Source).

§.10. … in uno grege, atque ovili continebantur, sicut & hodie continentur, quia unus est Christi thalamus una sponsa, una ovile, & unus pastor, & omnium Episcoporum unus Episcopus Romanus Praeful, beati Petri successor, & IESU CHRISTI Vicarius.

§.10. …  in one flock, the fold was contained, even just as at the present day they are contained, that there is one bridal chamber of Christ, the one bride, the one fold, and one shepherd, and one overseer of all the Bishops, the Bishop of Rome, the successor of blessed Peter, and Vicar of Jesus Christ.

… hunc omnes Christianae plebes, omnes populi, omnes reges, omnes clerici, omnes Episcopi tanquam JESU CHRISTI Vicarium, & beati Petri sucessorem universalis Ecclesiae caput ac rectore, & ducem venerati sint.

… this all the Christian people, that all people, all the kings, all the clergy, all the Bishops venerated as their leader the Vicar of Jesus Christ, blessed Peter’s successor, the Head and rector of the universal Church.

Alphonsus Alvarez Guerrero — 1559 — Thesaurus Christianae Religiones

In 1559 in Venice, Alphonsus Alvarez Guerrero, a Spanish civil and canon lawyer noted for his expertise (bene peritus) in antiquities of the church, and advisor to King Philip II of Spain in Naples Italy, published his Thesaurus Christianae Religiones (Treasure store of the Christian Religion), a detailed exposition of the powers, rights and duties of Christian authorities, civil and spiritual. He twice applied the title Vicarius Filii Dei to the Pope, asserting the authority of the Pope over the Holy Roman Emperor (Imperator Romanorum), a title granted by the Pope, at his discretion, to the German kings via a formal ceremonial crowning. The first such crowning of the German king Otto I by Pope Johannes XII in 962 was referred to as the translatio imperii. Based on that papal sanctioned transfer of power to the Germans, Pope Innocent III in 1202 claimed continuing authority to examine, anoint, consecrate and crown each German king as he saw fit, in the bull Venerabilem fratrem nostrum (Our brother worthy of respect). The text of the bull in Latin.

Thesaurus Christianae Religiones, chapter LV (55), De Imperatore et eius authoritate, pg. 305, line 30, a second copy pg. 305, line 30:

Et post Deum Imperator Apostolicus hoc approbat, (ut in ca. venerabilem. de electione. et ibi docto.) Ex quibus apparet, quòd Imperator Romanorum est dominus seu protector universàlis Christianorum. (et vide Abba. in c. novit de judi.* qui dicit communem esse opinionem), quòd Imperium à Deo sit; et à papa immediate, qui est Vicarius filii Dei.

After God’s Chief Apostle has given his approbation, … with which it is evident the Roman Emperor is lord or universal protector of Christians, etc., … supreme power is from God, and next the pope, who is the Vicar of the Son of God.

* Relectio c. novit de Judiciis non minus sublimis quam celebris; commentum novum et utile in rubr. de iudiciis … 1548, by Martino de Azpilcueta – Martin ab Azpilcueta Doctorum Navarrum, 1492-1586.

References to the bull Venerabilem.

Chapter LVI (56), De Imperio et de translatione Imperij ad Germanos, pg. 310, line 7, a second copy pg. 310, line 7:

Cum hoc tamen semper potestas confirmandi fuit apud Dominum papam, qui est vicarius filii Dei: verumtamen quoniam Imperatores illi priores infideles fuerunt, id non cognoscebant.

With this notwithstanding, the power of confirmation has always been accorded to the Lord pope, who is the Vicar of the Son of God: notwithstanding because this (papal confirmation) is not known when Emperors have previously been faithless.

Thesaurus was also printed in 1563 in Florence, and 1581 in Koln (pgs. 738, line 1, and 749, line 16). Guerrero became president of the supreme court in Naples, a priest, and was appointed Bishop of Monopoli by Philip II.

Rev 17:18 And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.

Cardinal Juan de Torquemada — 1561 — Summa de Ecclesia

Juan de Torquemada was a Spanish theologian and member of the Dominican Order. His monumental Summa de Ecclesia defended papal supremecy and infallibilty, and strongly opposed the conciliarists. Thomas Torquemada, the Grand Inquisitor, was his nephew.      Cap. XCVI. In quo respondetur objectionibus aduersariorum dicentium, quod Imperator aut secularis potestas non sit iudex ordinarius papae.

Chapter. 96. Answers to objections of adversaries who say, that the Emperor as a secular power cannot ordinarily judge the pope.

Ad secundum objectionem de privilegio Constantini, respondetur negando minorem. Roman enim pontifex primatum suum non habet a Constantino, sed a Christo qui beato Petro & in Petro suis succesoribus ait Ioan. ulti. Pasce oues meas. Et ad probationem de c. Constantinus dist – 96. responde tur quod in toto c. non habetur quod Romanus pontiff, habuerit primatum a Constantino immo Constantinus asserit quod beatus Petrus cui succedit Roman pontifex habuit a Christo primatum. unde ait sic. Sicut beatus Petrus in terris Vicarius filii Dei dicitur esse constitutus, &c. unde ipsè non dedit privilegium primatus, sed id quod a Christo credidit donatum esse Romano pontifici praecepit observari & uenerari per omnes orbis ecclesias, & ita non suit institutor primatus, sed magis executor legis & ordinationis Christi, prout etiam dictum est supra circa cap. 41.

To the second objection concerning the donation of Constantine, it is answered by a minor denial. The Roman pontiff does not have his primacy by Constantine, but by Christ to blessed Peter and Peter’s successors, as said in John: Feed my sheep. (John 21:16-17) And for proof concerning c. Constantine dist – 96. the answer is that in the entire c. can not conclude that by Constantine the Roman pontiff had primacy, Constantine says that blessed Peter and his successor the Roman Pontiff inherited this primacy from Christ, to whom he said, Thus and so. The blessed Peter is said to be appointed as the Vicar of the Son of God on earth, &c. hence, he [Constantine] did not give the privilege of primacy to the Roman pontiff, but he believed it a command from Christ, to be observed and honored by all the churches of the world, thus showing that he [Constantine] is not the author of [papal] primacy, but rather the executor of the law as Christ ordained, as has been said above in chapter. 41.
Summa de Ecclesia, D. Ioan. De Tvrrecremata, (Cardinal Juan de Torquemada 1388 – September 26, 1468), apud Michaelem Tramezinum, 1561, Liber Secundus, Cap. XCVI., pg. 231v.

Giovanni Battista Ziletti — 1577 — Consiliorum Seu Responsorum

Et si non potest Papa disponere, nec dispensare contra legem Dei, veteris, et noui Testamenti, licet sit Christi, Omnipotentis Dei filii Vicarius, iuxta illud: Tu es Petrus, etc. tibi dabo claues Regni coelorum. Minus potest Imperator dispensare contra Testamentum vetus, ac novum, …

And if the Pope can not order, nor dispense contrary to the law of God, of the Old and New Testament, even though he is of Christ, Vicar of the Almighty Son of God, according to this: Thou art Peter, etc., I will give thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. The Emperor is less able to dispense contrary to the Old Testament, and New …

Consiliorum Seu Responsorum, Ad Causas Criminales, Recens Editorum, … Tomus Secundus, Giovanni Battista Ziletti, Francoforti, 1577, pg. 182, right column, 4th line.

B. Antonini Archiepiscopi Florentini — 1581 — Summa Sacrae Theologiae

In 1581, Volume 3 of Summa Theologicae by the Archbishop of Florence, Saint Anthony (1389 – 1459), was published in Venice.  Title 22, chapter 5, section 16 deals with the Donation of Constantine and quotes it, to include Vicarius Filii Dei, on the page numbered 401. Then in section 22 on page 403, the title is applied to the pope as follows:

Et quantum ad primum, cum papa sit vicarius filii Dei, sicut quod Deus fecit mediantibus creaturis tanquam mediantibus causis secundis, totus potus facere immediate per seipsum, ita papa saltem quantum ad potestatem jurisdictionis. Sicut omnes fideles regit mediantibus ecclesiae ministris, ita potest immediate per seipsum regere.

And as much as to the first, since the pope is vicar of the Son of God, as that God made the creatures as if by means of the mediation of secondary causes, the whole he could do directly by himself, so the pope has at least as much power of jurisdiction. Similarly, he can govern directly all the faithful, or by means of the ministers of the Church.

Eximij doctoris B. Antonini Archiepiscopi Florentini, Ordinis Praedicatorum, Summa Sacrae Theologiae, Juris Pontificii, Et Caesarei, Tertia Pars. Venetiis, Apud Juntas, 1581, Titulus XXII, Vigesimus Secundus, De statu summorum pontificis, Cap. V., De potstate papae quae est maior omnia potestate creata.,§ 16, and § 22., pgs. 401, 403. The beginning of section 16 refers to question 43 (Ad 3) of Aug. de Ancho. (Augustinus Triumphus’ Summa de potestate ecclesiastica), which also cites the Donation (see above).

Andreas Helwig — 1600 — Quaestionis anne certum aliquod Antichristi nomen extet

The first known association of Vicarius Filii Dei with 666 appeared in Quaestionis anne certum aliquod Antichristi nomen extet, cui numerus ille apocalypticum 666 exacte congruentesque insit; apodictica tractatio (Investigating proof that a name of Antichrist exists that exactly corresponds to the apocalyptic number 666; incontrovertibly handled), authore Carolo Aglaeonio Irenochoraeo (believed to be a pseudonym for Andreas Helwig [or Helwich] the rector of Berlin), Davidi Chytraeo dedicata, Gryphosylae. 1600. Download: 2.6 Mb.
Original in the Staatsbibliothek Zu Berlin.

 Andreas Helwig — 1612 — Antichristus Romanus

In 1612 he also published Antichristus Romanus, in proprio suo nomine, numerum illum Apocalypticum (DCLXVI) continente proditus, — Roman Antichrist, particular names that total the Apocalyptic Number 666, that contain treachery, in Wittenberg, which also identified Vicarius Filii Dei. — The contribution of British writers between 1560 and 1830 to the Interpretation of Revelation 13:16-18, By David Brady, J.C.B Mohr, Tubingen, 1983, pgs. 84-85.


“Helwig shows that the mystic name (1) must yield the required number; (2) must agree with the papal order; (3) must not be a vile name applied by enemies, but acceptable to Antichrist himself; and (4) must be one of which he can boast. Helwig takes Vicarius Filii Dei as an expansion or equivalent of the officially used shorter papal title Vicarius Christi, and shows that it conforms to these four requirements, citing Sleidanus in his Commentariis Suis Historicis, lib. 2, for the decretal of Aeneas Sylvias, which employs the title Vicarius Christi only.

3. EXPLAINS CHOICE OF VICARIUS FILII DEI.—Explaining his emphasis of Vicarius Filii Dei, Helwig checks it by his four rules: “

Original online at the Staatsbibliothek Zu Berlin.
    “But behold this present [name] (Vicarius Filii Dei) in every way is such as is required. For first, it is a Latin name, and most exactly renders with significant letters that Apocalyptic number; then it harmonizes wholly and always with the papal order in itself (even though by hypothesis [ex hypothesi]), as no pontiff denies; then it is not offensive or vile as imposed upon him by adversaries, but is especially honorable to this very one, venerable, and formidable to others: which all the pontiffs have now already ascribed to themselves for more than 600 years (as is apparent), and do ascribe today, and wish to be ascribed: on which account they vehemently glory and boast with an execrable voice that they hold, shared as it were with the omnipotent God, the rule throughout the earth in human affairs. This [is] what, among other things (for who may investigate all the swelling words of papal bulls?), that decretal of Pope Aeneas Sylvius (who wished later to be called Pius) makes clearly evident—[that decretal] published in the year 1459 at Mantua which John Sleidan notes in his historical commentaries, vol. 2—in which he [the pope] took care that nobody should appeal from the pope to a Council because he said that, in the nature of things, nothing greater could be found above the Vicar of Christ.” [See Execrabilis above] —  Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, Vol. 02, by Le Roy Edwin Froom, 1948, Review and Herald, pg. 607. See 605-608, for more quotes of Helwig.

Andreas Helwig — 1630 — Antichristus Romanus

In 1630, Helwig published Antichristus Romanus ex proprio suo nomine proditus: et in gloriam Domini nostri Jesu Christi summi et unici ecclesiae pontificis, cujus honorem et cathedram iste oppositus VICarIVs fILII DeI sibi vendicans toti Orbi imponit, publicatus, et S. ecclesiae catholicae judicio subjectus, — Roman Antichrist, particular names of treachery: opposing the glory of our Lord Jesus Christ the only high priest of the church, whose official dignity and authority this Vicar of the Son of God usurps, and sells deceitfully to the whole world, subjecting the Holy universal church to his judgment, per M. Andream Helvigium, Rectorem Gymnasii Stralsund. StralsundI. Vna sit aVXILIVM gloria nostra, DeI. Literis Ferberianis. 4. (The capitalized letters of the phrase VICarIVs fILII DeI in Roman Numerals equal 666.)

Helwig’s association of Vicarius Filii Dei with 666 and the role that title has played in history is documented and discussed in depth (over 850 pages) in: The Truth About 666 and the Story of the Great Apostasy, Three Volumes in One, by Edwin de Kock, Copyright © 2011 Edwin de Kock.

Download: 7.7 Mb.
Original in the Västerås City Library, Sweden.

That’s 546 years from Pope Leo IX’s letter to the first public revelation in 1600 that the phrase equaled 666, 546 years that Vicarius Filii Dei would not have been denied as applying to the Pope by anyone in the Roman Catholic Church, and even so, it continued to appear in Catholic canon law and other Catholic publications for additional centuries.

In the Chapel of St. Sylvester (part of the Basilica of Santi Quattro Coronati, located in Rome on Coelian hill, between St. John Lateran and the Coliseum), a series of frescoes commissioned by Pope Innocent IV, and completed in 1246, depict various events in the life of Pope Sylvester I.
The Donation of Constantine, Santi Quattro Coronati, Rome.

In the fresco panels, shown above, Emperor Constantine is offering his crown to the Pope, illustrating the Donation of Constantine, and in the following panel, the triumphal Pope riding on horseback and wearing Constantine’s tiara, is led through Rome by the humbled Emperor, who is on foot.

Another painting representing the Donation of Constantine, shown below, is in the Vatican, in the Sala di Costantino. It was painted by Raphael and his workshop from 1519 to 1525, along with depictions of Constantine’s baptism, his vision of the cross, and his victory at the battle at Milvian bridge, so at the time it would seem the Donation of Constantine was still considered to be genuine.

Detail of the Donation of Constantine as depicted in a painting by
Gianfrancesco Penni, in the Sala di Costantino, the Vatican.
For the whole painting, see The Art of Renaissance Rome, by Loren Partridge,
published by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, A Times Mirror Company,
Copyright 1996 by Calmann & King, Ltd., ISBN 0-8109-2718-7, page 158.

The kneeling Constantine is handing Pope Sylvester I a statuette of Roma Aeterna (eternal Rome) symbolizing the transfer of power from the emperor to the papacy. On February 23, 1520, about four years before the Raphael’s painting of the Donation was completed, Martin Luther, in a letter to Spalatin, wrote:

I have at hand Lorenzo Valla’s proof that the Donation of Constantine is a forgery. Good heavens, what darkness and wickedness is at Rome. You wonder at the judgment of God that such unauthentic, crass, imprudent lies not only lived, but prevailed for so many centuries, that they were incorporated in the canon law … and became as articles of faith. I am in such a passion that I scarcely doubt that the pope is the Antichrist expected by the world, so closely do their acts, lives, sayings, and laws agree.

Source: The Art of Renaissance Rome, by Loren Partridge, published by Harry N. Abrams, Inc., New York, A Times Mirror Company, Copyright 1996 by Calmann & King, Ltd., ISBN 0-8109-2718-7, page 159.

9. … All these excessive, over-presumptuous, and most wicked claims of the Pope are the invention of the devil, with the object of bringing in antichrist in due course and of raising the Pope above God, as indeed many have done and are now doing. It is not meet that the Pope should exalt himself above temporal authority, except in spiritual matters, such as preaching and absolution; in other matters he should be subject to it, according to the teaching of St. Paul (Rom. xiii.) and St. Peter (I Peter iii.), as I have said above. He is not the vicar of Christ in heaven, but only of Christ upon earth. For Christ in heaven, in the form of a ruler, requires no vicar, but there sits, sees, does, knows, and commands all things. But He requires him “in the form of a servant” to represent Him as He walked upon earth, working, preaching, suffering, and dying. But they reverse this: they take from Christ His power as a heavenly Ruler, and give it to the Pope, and allow “the form of a servant” to be entirely forgotten (Phil. ii. 7). He should properly be called the counter-Christ, whom the Scriptures call antichrist; for his whole existence, work, and proceedings are directed against Christ, to ruin and destroy the existence and will of Christ.

It is also absurd and puerile for the Pope to boast for such blind, foolish reasons, in his decretal Pastoralis, that he is the rightful heir to the empire, if the throne be vacant. Who gave it to him? Did Christ do so when He said, “The kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, but ye shall not do so” (Luke xxii. 25, 26)? Did St. Peter bequeath it to him? It disgusts me that we have to read and teach such impudent, clumsy, foolish lies in the canon law, and, moreover, to take them for Christian doctrine, while in reality they are mere devilish lies. Of this kind also is the unheard-of lie touching the “donation of Constantine.” It must have been a plague sent by God that induced so many wise people to accept such lies, though they are so gross and clumsy that one would think a drunken boor could lie more skillfully. How could preaching, prayer, study, and the care of the poor consist with the government of the empire? These are the true offices of the Pope, which Christ imposed with such insistence that He forbade them to take either coat or scrip (Matt. x. 10), for he that has to govern a single house can hardly perform these duties. Yet the Pope wishes to rule an empire and to remain a pope. This is the invention of the knaves that would fain become lords of the world in the Pope’s name, and set up again the old Roman empire, as it was formerly, by means of the Pope and name of Christ, in its former condition.

Source: Luther’s Address To The Nobility of the German Nation, 1520..


Pope John XXII called Vicarius Filii DEI — 1669 & 1718

Adstipulatur R. P. Leo a S. Ioanne lib. inscripto Foedus Spirituale, & Regí Christianissimo Ludovico XIV. dicato [ Deus (inquit) est, qui Privilegium istud concessit : Mater DEI impetravit in coelis: Vicarius Filii DEI ratificavit in terris.

Source:Clavis Aurea Thesauri Partheno-Carmelitici, Sive Dissertatio Historico-Theologica … by R. P. Paulus (ab Omnibus Sanctis), Carmelita Excalceato Provinciae Germaniae Definitore, 1669,  p. 234.

The Sabbath (Saturday) Privilege Edict

What the Most Pious and Devout Carmelite Mother of God requested from
Heaven, the Vicar of the Son of God ratified and promulgated on Earth

John XXII in a long celebrated bull, called Sabbitina, beginning Sacratissimo uti culmine &c.

Papal Confirmation Adds Weight

Source: Signum Salutis, Salus in Periculis: hoc est, beneficia & admiranda … by Raphael (a Sancto Josepho), 1718, p. 34.

In the controversial Bull “Sacratissimo uti culmine” (As though in the most sacred heights – English translation) of John XXII, dated 3 March, 1322, or Bulla Sabbatina, John XXII affirmed an indulgence for members of the Carmelite Order. Wearers of the Scapular of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, known also as the brown scapular, are promised to be quickly freed from the flames of purgatory, at least by the Saturday after their death. The Bull states:

Salve Regina, Mater misericordiae, & spes nostra : Sic mihi flexis genibus supplicanti Virgo visa fuit Carmelita, sequentem éffata sèrmonem:

Hail, Queen of Mercy and our hope: So, as I prayed with bended knees, the Virgin of Carmel seemed to speak to me these words:

О Joannes, О Joannes,Vicarie mei dilecti Filii, veluti à tuo te eripiam adversario, te Papam facio, solemni dono Vicarium, mèis coadjuvantibus supplicationibüs ; à dulcissimo meo Filio petents, quod gratiosè obtinui : ità gratiam, & amplàm mio sancto, ас devoto Carmelitarum Ordini cortfirmationem debeas praeconcedere, per Eliam & Eliseum in Monte Carmeli inchoato: Quod unusqüísque professíonem faciens, Regulam à meo servo Alberto Patriarcha ordinatam observabit, & inviolatam obtinebit, & per meum dilecum Filium Inocentium approbatam, Ut veri mei Filii Vicariüs debeas in terris assentire, quöd in coelis meus statuit semel & ordinavit Filius: Quod qui in sancta persèverabit obedientia, paupertate, & causitate : vel qüi sanctum intrabit ordinavit salvabitur.

O John, O John, Vicar of my well-beloved Son, I shall snatch thee, as it were, from thy foe. Thee who art Pope, I make my Vicar for the solemn gift which I sought from My Son and have obtained by my prayers. So, it behooveth thee to grant a favor and confirmation to my holy and devout Order of Carmel, which took its rise with Elias and Eliseus on the mountain of that name. Whoso maketh profession, whoso observeth the Rule drawn up by my servant Albert the Patriarch, whoso unfailing shows obedience thereunto and to that which has been approved by my dear son Innocent, so that thou mayest accept through the true Vicars of My Son on earth what My Son hath ordained in Heaven: that he who shall have persevered in holy obedience, poverty and chastity, or shall enter the Holy Order, shall be saved.

Istam ergo sanctam Indulgentiam accepto, roboro et in terris confirmo, sicut, propter merita Virginis Matris, gratiose Jesus Christus concessit in coelis

This holy indulgence I therefore accept; I confirm and ratify it on earth, just as Jesus Christ has graciously granted it in heaven on account of the merits of the Virgin Mother.

See The Sabbatine Privilege.

The Defense of the Roman Church and the Popes — 1696.

Sicut licet credamus quod Papa succedit S. Pietro in toto hujus potestate, & est Vicarius Filii Dei sicut S. Petrus, ex Leone IX. Epist. X. cap. II & ex Leone X. Constitutione 40. & Pio II. in Bulla retractationis.

Just as we believe the Pope succeeds Saint Peter in the whole of this power, and is the Vicar of the Son of God, like Peter,

Source: Défense de L’Eglise Romaine et des Souverains Pontifes, Contre Melchior Leydecker, Theologien D’Utrecht, … Par Mr. Germain Docteur en Theologie, A Liege, Chez Henri Hoyoux, proche les RR. PP. Jesuits; a L’Enfeigne de S. Fransois Xavier, 1696, pg. 629.

Bibliotheca Maxima Pontificia — 1698.

143. … Est Vicarius Filij Dei sicut Petrus, ex eodem. Et ex Concil. Florentino in literis vnion. Armen. Extra vnam sanctam de maior. & obed. Est Magister, & Doctor omnium Ecclefiarum, ex Concil. Later. 3. in appendtit. de sponsalib. secundo, & ex Conc. Florent. vbi supra. Nicol. I. in decr. de consuetudine can. Denique dist. 21. Est caput Religionis ex Nicol. I. in appendice epist. 14. ex Leone IX. epist. i. cap. 10 & 15. Ratione officij, est sicut Sanctus Petrus ex Leone IX. epist. 1. cap. 31. & ex Concil.Constantien. in constitué. Martini V. Habet à Christo omnem potestatem necessariam ad regendam Ecclesiam, ex Pio II. in Bulla Retract. Solus iudicat, & soluit res fidei, sicut Sanctus Petrus, ex Melchiade epist. décret. Ergo post Apostolos, ipse, vel cum_i. Concilio, vel fine eo, sufficienter proponit toti mundo obiecta fidei.

143. … He is the Vicar of the Son of God, as was Peter:

He is the Teacher and Doctor for the entire church:

He is the Head of Religion:

He has from Christ all the power necessary to govern the Church,

He alone judges and defines faith, as Holy Peter did.

  • From Pope Melchiade’s (311-314) epistle decree.

Consequently, since the Apostles, with or without a Council, he adequately sets forth the articles of faith for the entire world.

Source: Bibliotheca Maxima Pontificia: Vol 15, pg 110, Buagni, 1698, by Juan Tomás de Rocaberti.

Vicarius Filii Dei and Vicarius Christi listed as Equivalent Papal Titles — 1728

This 3 volume ecclesiastical anthology lists papal names / titles found in various texts of general councils, Gratian’s decretals, and letters / bulls of the Popes.

Polyanthea Sacrorum Canonum Coordinatorum Qui In Conciliis Generalibus Ac Provincialibus in Oriente ac Occidente celebratis, In Decreto Gratiani, In Decretalibus, in Epistolis ac Constitutionibus Romanorum Pontificium, by Giovanni Paolo Paravicini, Volume 3, 1728, p. 205.

[p. 204]
I. Papa Seu Romanus Pontifex, ejus dignitas, sanctitas, & majestas.
The Pope or Roman Pontiff, his dignity, sanctity and majesty.

I. Papae nomen.
Papal names / titles….

11. Papa eft Vicarius Filii Dei, sicut Petrus.
The Pope is the Vicar of the Son of God, like Peter.
Etiamsi mores S Petri non habeat.
Even if he does not have the character of Saint Peter.

[XIII] …, pаuса ex privilegio ejusdem Constantini [manu cum cruce aurea super coelestis clavigeri venerable corpus posito, ad medium proferemus; quibus fundetur veritas & confunditur vanitas, …] &c. […] Quia idem gloriosus Princeps in jam dicto privilegio, post Christianae fidei claram perfectamque confessionem, atque Baptismatis sui enucleatam commendationem , specialem S [anctae]. R [omanae]. E [cclesia]. dignitatem sic promulgavit, dicens [quote of Donation of Constantine]: utile judicavimus, una cum omnibus nostris satrapis & universo Senatu, optimatibus etiam, & cunctó populó, Romanae Gloríae Imperio subjacente, ut sicut В. Petrus in terris, Vicarius Filii Dei esse videtur constitutus etiam & Pontífices, ipsius Principis AA. vice principatûs potestatem ampliùs, quam terrenae Imperialis nostrae Serenitatis mansuetudo habere videtur, concessàm à nobis nostróque lmperió obtineant, eligentes nobis ipsum Principem AA. vel ejus Vicarios, firmos apud Deum essé patronos.

[XIII] …, a few Privileges which were confirmed by the Hand of the said Constantine, with a Cross of Gold laid upon the venerable Body of the Celestial Key-bearer+, by which Truth will be confirmed, and Vanity will be confounded: … the same glorious Prince in the aforesaid Privilege, did, after a clear and perfect Confession of the Christian Faith, and a curious Commendation of his Baptism, thus promulgate the special Dignity of the Holy Roman Church, saying [quote of Donation of Constantine]: We — together with all our satraps, and the whole senate and my nobles, and also all the people subject to the government of glorious Rome — considered it advisable, that as the Blessed Peter is seen to have been constituted vicar of the Son of God on the earth, so the Pontiffs who are the representatives of that same chief of the apostles, should obtain from us and our empire the power of a supremacy greater than the clemency of our earthly imperial serenity is seen to have conceded to it, choosing that same chief of the apostles and his vicars to be our constant intercessors with God.

  • Leo IX. ep. I. cap. 13. [In terra pax hominibus, 1054 A.D., Chap. XIII quoted above. Uses vicarius filii Dei. See above].
  • Leo X. Const. 40. Exurge. [Exsurge Domine (Latin Arise O Lord, English), 15 June 1520 A.D., #25 uses Christi vicarius].
  • De electione. in 6. cap. Fundamenta. [Liber Sextus, Book 1, Titulus 6: De electione et electi potestate, c. xvii: Fundamenta, col. 129. [See col. 132, & footnotes z & t. Uses Romani Pontificis vicarii Dei].
  • Vide, ubi suprà n.g. Conc. Constantien. [Council of Constance, Pope John XXIII] contrà art. 37. Wigleff. [uses Vicarius Christi] & contra articulum 12 & 13 Joannis Нus, [uses vicem Christi].
  • Vide, In Bullario. Concil. Florentinum. Sess ultima, in litteris unionis. & constitut. 17. Eugenii IV. Latent. In 8. [Laetentur coeli et exultat terra, dated July 6th, 1439 A.D., uses Christi vicarium]. See also above.

+According to Liber Pontificalis, Constantine exhumed the remains of Saint Peter and placed the coffin in a sarcophagus of bronze, with a gold cross set above it that weighed 150 pounds.
This author lists Vicarius Filii Dei and vicarii Dei with forms of vicarius Christi as functional equivalents.

See also Annales de Philosophie Chrétienne, De M. A. Bonnetty, Tome 5, Paris, 1852, p. 33, footnotes 7 & 8, which presents precisely the same references*:

Le pape est le vicaire du Fils de Dieu comme saint Pierre 7 quand même il n’aurait pas les mœurs de saint Pierre 8.

7 Papa est vicarius filii Dei, sicut Petrus. Leo IX, ep.1, c. 13.
— Leo x, Const. 40, Exurge.
— De Elect. in sexto, 6, c. fundamenta.
— Concil. constant. contra ar. 37 Wicleff et contra art. 12 Joannis Huss.
8 Etiamsi mores sancti Petri non habeat. Ibid. contr art. 13 Joan. Huss.
Conc. Flor. in litteris unionis. — Eugen. IV, Const. 17, n. 8.

*Also discussed in: The Truth About 666 and the Story of the Great Apostasy, by Edwin de Kock, 2011, pgs. 447-448.

Vindication of the Popes — 1756

Et quis est , qui Petro nimiùm attribuat , cui Christus inter Apostolos Primatum , & totius Ecclesia Catholicae curam attribuit ?Divinos Petro honores nemo Catholicorum attribuit ; in alio autem Petrum colendi génère haud quisquam facile excesserit ; quia Jesu Christi Filii Dei Vicarius, & ipse in vita & morte sanctissimus, tantae est supra omne, quod humanum est , excellentiae; ut ab homine ejus dignitas nec ad sufficientiam aestimari valeat, nec cultu dubiae ad excessum cœli.

Vindiciae Summorum Pontificum adversus omnis generis adversarios (Vindication of the Popes against opponents of all kinds),  adornatae per Wilibaldum Heissium, Stadler, 1756, pg. 90.

Vincent Houdry, Society of Jesus1767

When Honorius II died in 1130, two rival groups of Cardinals elected 2 popes, Innocent II and Anacletus II, which took 8 years to resolve. In the end, Innocent II was declared the valid pope by St. Bernard of Clairvaux.

Ad magnam, quam S. Bernardus habuit in Ecclesia, auctoritatem cognoscendam sciendum est, Honorio Papa e vivas sublato, pro Successoris electione suffragia mirum in modum abiisse in diversa. Tune visa sunt super idem corpus duo capita, super eumdem thronum duo Principes, super eosdem subditos duo Domini; in eodem ovili Pastores duo; alter subreptitius, alter legitimus; ille usurpator, hic verus Filii Dei Vicarius.

As to great authority which Saint Bernard had in the Church, and the knowledge of it should be noted, when Pope Honorius died, the votes in the election of a successor had in an amazing way gone two different directions. Then there was to be seen on the same body two heads, upon the same throne two Princes over the same subjects of the Lord; in the same fold two Shepherds; one surreptitious, the other legitimate; there a usurper, here the true Vicar of the Son of God.

Bibliotheca Concionatoria Complectens Panegyricas Orationes Sanctorum. Tomus Secundus, … by R. P. Vincentii Houdry, E Societate Jesu, Venetiis, 1767, pg. 102.  1779 printing, pg. 96.

The Vatican’s Salone Sistino

Named for Pope Sixtus V (1585-1590) who commissioned its construction, the Salone Sistino (or Apostolic Library) is on the top floor of the building that s the north end of the Cortile del Belvedere from east to west, connecting the Belvedere and the Vatican Palace. Richly decorated by Giovani Guerra, Cesare Nebbia, and assistants, there are several frescoes of note. On the east end of the grand hall, there is a fresco of the First Nicean Council of 325 A.D. Beneath the fresco is the inscription:


Without the abbreviations the first line reads:


The inscription states that Pope Silvester I and Emperor Flavius Constantine declare Christ the Son and God the Father consubstantial, condemning the Arian heresy. In the fresco, Bishop Hosius of Cordoba is presiding and is seated at top center. He is flanked by Pope Sylvester’s legates, Victor and Vincentius. The crowned emperor Constantine, who convened the council, is seated in the left center foreground, and Christ and God the Father are seated in a cloud at top left.

At the opposite, or west end of the Salone Sistino, is another set of 3 related frescoes on the center pilaster between the arched doorways. On the left side of the pilaster (Christ’s right hand) is a Pope standing with triple cross and tiara, with the inscription:


The center fresco depicts Christ seated. Over His head is A[lpha] ET Ω[mega], in His hand is an open book that reads EGO SVM A ET Ω – PRINCIPIVM ET FINIS, and at His feet is the inscription:


See the illustration in Orazio Gentileschi and the Poetic Tradition in Caravaggesque Painting, by  R. Ward Bissell, Pennsylvania State University Press, 1981, pg. 133.

The fresco on the right side of the pilaster (Christ’s left hand) depicts an Emperor standing, with crown, sword, and blue mantle. The inscription reads:


Photo by Notre Dame Architecture Library

High resolution Vatican photo

See also:

  • The Care Of Books, by John Wills Clark, Cambridge University Press, 1901, pgs. 49-60. (Frescoes are the Pope, Christ, and Emperor, pg. 52)
  • La Bibliotheque Vaticane Et Ses Annexes:, by Le Chanoine X. Barbier De Montault, Rome, 1867, pg 24. (Identifies the Pope fresco as Sylvester and the Emperor fresco as Constantine)
  • The Life of Pope Sixtus the Fifth, translated from the Italian of Gregorio Leti, by Ellis Farneworth, Dublin, 1779, pg. 520. (Identifies the Pope fresco as Sixtus V and the other an Emperor)

The Sistine hall suffered severe damage December 22, 1931, when central support columns and a large portion of the roof totally collapsed and plunged through two floors, but it was completely rebuilt and restored.

In 1793, and later editions, the book Apocalyptical Key. An Extraordinary Discourse on the Rise and Fall of the Papacy; … by Robert Fleming (1660-1716), was reprinted with the assertion by the editor that VICARIVS FILII DEI was inscribed over a door of the Vatican (see pg. 48). The fresco of a Pope on the pilaster between the Vatican Library and the Salone Sistino, while admittedly not having the exact wording, and on a pilaster rather than over the door, is the closest known example that may be the inscription referred to in this and other books.

Lucius Ferraris, about 1755, wrote an elaborate multi-volume theological reference work or encyclopedia titled Prompta Bibliotheca in which he quoted the Donation of Constantine, including the phrase Vicarius Filii Dei, in article 2 of the entry “Papa” (Pope). He cited the revised canon law as his authority. Here is the cover page of volume 5, of an edition published in 1858, note that it carries the blessing of Pope Gregory XVI –  (SANCTISSIMI D. N. GREGORII XVI P.M.)


Below is part of column 1828 from volume 5 of Prompta Bibliotheca, 1858 Paris edition, where the title of Vicarius Filii Dei appears in #20 of article 2 of the entry “Papa” (Pope), which I have indicated with an arrow. Again, this is a quote from the Donation of Constantine:

Full scanned pages from  Prompta Bibliotheca.

Ferraris’ work was later revised, enlarged, and once again published in Rome by the Sacred Congregation de Propaganda Fide in 1890. In that edition, the document and papal title Vicarius Filii Dei were still retained. (Lucius Ferraris, Prompta Bibliotheca (Rome, 1890), Vol. VI, p. 43, col. 2.)

According the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia, a further revised edition of Prompta Bibliotheca was published in Rome by the presses of the Vatican’s Office of Propaganda in 1899.

Wolfgang Frölich — 1790 — Who Is Peter?

… supremus Ecclesia Pastor, Christi Filii Dei Vicarius, Sancti Pétri Successor, romanus Pontifex, Pius VI,…

… the supreme Pastor of the Church, the Vicar of Christ the Son of God, Successor of Saint Peter, the Roman Pontiff, Pius VI, …

Quis est Petrus seu qualis Petri Primatus?: Liber theologico-canonico catholicus, by Wolfgang Frölich, 1790, pg. 438.

L’Abbe J. Guame  — 1845 — Catéchisme de Persévérance

Malgré ces pénibles travaux, le vicaire du Fils de Dieu menait une vie extrêmement frugale.  [In spite of this painful work, the vicar of the Son of God (Peter) carried out an extremely frugal life.]

Catéchisme de Persévérance, L’Abbe J. Guame, Cinquieme Edition, Tome Cinquième, Paris, 1845, p. 25

Cardinal Henry Edward Manning1862 — The Temporal Power of the Vicar of Jesus Christ

[pg. 140]

… there are Catholics who talk against the temporal power of the Pope, either because they have been stunned by the clamours of a Protestant people, or because they are white-hearted, and have not courage to stand in the face of popular falsehood for an unpopular truth. The spirit of Protestant England?its lawlessness, its pride, its contempt, and its enmity to the Church of God?has made Catholics too to be cold-hearted, even when the Vicar of Jesus Christ is insulted. We have need, then, to be upon our guard. It shall happen once more with some, as it did when the Son of God was in His Passion?they saw Him betrayed, bound, carried away, buffeted, blindfolded, and scourged; they saw Him carry His Cross to Calvary, then nailed upon it, and lifted up to the scorn of the world; and they said, “If he be the king of Israel, let him now come down from the cross, and we will believe him.”* So in like manner they say now, “See this Catholic Church, this Church of God, feeble and weak, rejected even by the very nations called Catholic. There is Catholic France, and Catholic Germany, and Catholic Italy, giving up this exploded figment of the temporal power of the Vicar of Jesus Christ.” And

* St. Matt. xxvii. 42.

[pg. 141]

so, because the Church seems weak, and the Vicar of the Son of God is renewing the Passion of his Master upon earth, therefore we are scandalized, therefore we turn our faces from him. Where, then, is our faith? But the Son of God foretold these things when He said, “And now I have told you, before it come to pass; that when it shall come to pass, you may believe.”*

* St. John xiv. 29.

[pg. 230]

… Lastly, the only other point upon which I shall speak to is this. We have already seen how the powers and glories of the Holy See have been progressively unfolding; how the time of St. Gregory I. was a period of apostolic missions, converting the nations to the faith; how the time of St. Leo III. was a period

[pg. 231]

of creating the Christian world; how the time of St. Gregory VII. was a period of purifying the sanctuary of the Church; and how the time of Alexander III. was a period of royalty of government and of ecclesiastical order, when the divine power of the church directed, by a firm and sacred authority, the civil powers of the world within the sphere of the law of God and of obedience to the faith. Now I observe these powers of the Holy See have been always rising, always culminating. The temporal power in the hand of St. Gregory I. was a fatherly and patriarchal rule over nations not as yet reduced to civil order. In the hands of St. Leo III. it became a power of building empires. In the hands of St. Gregory VII. it was a scourge to chasten them. In the hands of Alexander III. it was a dynasty, ruling supremely, in the name of God, over the powers of the world. And now in these later times the temporal sovereignty has become a law of the conscience, an axiom of the reason. Through long contests and denials it has passed into consciences, intellects, and hearts of men. Like the great dogmas of the Church, through controversy it has reached its analysis and expression. It stands by the side of the Immaculate Conception a theological certainty, if not a definition. So that I may say there never was a time when the temporal power of the Vicar of the Son of God, though assailed as we see it, was more firmly rooted through-

[pg. 232]

out the whole unity of the Catholic Church in the hearts and convictions of its members; and that by a double process, not only by its own proper evidence, not only by the light of God’s dealing with the world, but by contrast. For the nations of Europe have already seen that the society of the world, without the guidance and preservation of the Church of God, resolves itself into confusion. They have seen every form of political society, and the confederations of kingdoms and nations, dissolve and pass away. While all the floating societies of the world have drifted down the stream, the centre of obedience has become more stable. Men have learned from the history of modern Europe that the law which is called the law of nations—that is, the rule of justice which regulates the relations of people with people—has become weak and powerless. And why? Because the nations have broken the bonds which bound them to the centre of obedience, and have shaken off the noble submission to a tribunal higher than man, from which came forth, in other days, the judgments of equity and of justice. It was a dignified obedience to bow to the Vicar of the Son of God, and to remit the arbitration of their griefs to one whom all wills consented to obey.

Source: The Temporal Power of the Vicar of Jesus Christ, by Henry Edward Manning, D.D. (appointed Archbishop of Westminster in 1865 and Cardinal in 1875), second edition with a preface, published in 1862 in London by Burns & Lambert, 17 &18 Portman Street.

Cardinal Henry Edward Manning  — 1871  — The Vatican Council And Its Definitions

For what is the temporal power, but the condition of peaceful independence and supreme direction over all Christians, and all Christian so- [p. 166] cieties, inherent in the office of Vicar of Christ, and head of the Christian Church? When the Civil powers became Christian, faith and obedience restrained them from casting so much as a shadow of human sovereignty over the Vicar of the Son of God. They who attempt it now will do it at their peril.

The Vatican Council And Its Definitions: Pastoral Letter to the Clergy, By Henry Edward Manning, Archbishop of Westminster, Second Edition, New York, 1871, p. 166.

Vicarius Filii Dei in the text of the Donation of Constantine in an 1869 Vatican printing of Cardinal Deusdedit’s Canon Law (compiled in 1087 A.D.) online at Google books.  Deusdedit’s bio.

Below is a copy of the cover page of Catholic Canon Law (Corpus Iuris Canonici) and Gratian’s Decretalspublished in 1879 in Germany by Emil Friedberg:


The Donation of Constantine is quoted in column 342, part of which is shown below. The phrase “vicarius filii dei” is found near the center of the paragraph. (Note that a “u” is used in place of a “v”.)


The Bavarian State Library of Germany has a digitized 1879 version of Corpus Iuris Canonici available online, with full document download in .pdf format.  The title appears in column 342 (image 223). The relevant section is found under the following headings:

– C. XIV. De eodem.

In the many hundreds of years that the Donation of Constantine appeared in Catholic Canon Law, it was apparently always presented as a genuine historical document legally granting the papacy temporal power and authority, for to acknowledge it as a fraud would have been to admit that power and authority of the papacy to be likewise fraudulent. With the forced loss of the papal states from 1798 to 1870, the territorial sovereignty that the papacy had acquired via the donation was gone, until 1929, when Mussolini in the Lateran Pact granted it sovereignty over the Vatican City State.

 Monseigneur Louis Gaston A. de Sègur — 1881 — Familiar Instructions


What Rome is to the world, St. Peter’s is to Rome.
Rome is the holy city, the centre of the Catholic faith, the citadel of truth, the very sanctuary of the Catholic religion. And of all the temples that are enclosed within this one vast temple, St. Peter’s is the chief; it is the central point of religious faith in Rome, and her most magnificent crown. Every one can understand why. Within these sacred walls repose the relics of the Prince of the Apostles, the first Bishop of Rome, the first of the long line of Pontiffs, the first Vicar of Jesus Christ. And close by, in an immense palace near to the church, the Pontiff lives, — the successor of St. Peter, the Vicar of the Son of God, and Sovereign Pastor of all the Christians upon the face of the whole earth.

Familiar Instructions And Evening Lectures On All The Truths Of Religion, by Monseigneur Louis Gaston A. de Sègur, translated from the French, Vol. II.; London: Burns & Oates, 1881, p. 204.

Our Sunday Visitor, Nov. 15, 1914.

In the Nov 15, 1914 Edition of Our Sunday Visitor, (a Catholic publication), the following question was addressed on page 3 in the section titled Bureau of Information:

Is it true that the words of the Apocalypse in the 13th Chapter, 18th verse refer to the Pope?

The words referred to are these “Here is wisdom. He that hath understanding, let him count the number of the beast. For it is a the number of a man: and the number of him is six hundred sixty-six.” The title of the Pope in Rome is Vicarius Filii Dei. This is inscribed on his mitre[*]; and if you take the letters of his title which represent Latin numerals (printed large) and add them together they come to 666.

5 1 100 1 5 1 50 1 1 500 1

Add these together and the result will be 666.
This “argument” was submitted to Rev. Ernest R. Hull, and answered in the following manner: “Almost every eminent man in Christendom, who has enjoyed the privilege of possessing enemies, has had his name turned and twisted till they could get the number 666 out of it. In past history there have been numberless beasts or Anti-Christs, all of whose names counted up to 666. I fancy that my own name, especially in Latin form, might give the number of the beast:

5 1 50 500 5 5 50 50 =666

Quod erat demonstrandum, namely, that Rev. Ernest R. Hull is Anti-Christ, or the Beast of the Apocalypse!”
Perhaps a little ingenuity with your name will show that you are the beast of the Apocalypse too.

View a facsimile scan from microfilm. Contains sanctions for the editor from Pope Pius X, dated May 17, 1914; from Archbishop John Bonzano of Melitene, the Apostolic Delegate to the U.S., dated April 27, 1913; and from H. J. Alerding, Bishop of Fort Wayne, Indiana., dated March 29, 1912.

Rev. Ernest R. Hull S. J. was editor of The Examiner of Bombay, India, a Catholic newsweekly.

*[The Vatican’s Papal Sacristy has more than a dozen papal triple (triregno) crowns, which are properly called tiaras. The papal mitre, of which there have been very many, is quite different. A mitre is shown below on the right.]

Pope John XXIII
wearing a triple tiara.
Pope John Paul II
wearing a papal mitre.

Our Sunday Visitor, Apr. 18, 1915.

Again in the April 18th, 1915 edition of Our Sunday Visitor, Rev. John F. Noll, editor, the following question was addressed on page 3, in the section titled Bureau of Information:

What are the letters supposed to be in the Pope’s crown, and what do they signify, if anything?

The letters inscribed in the Pope’s mitre are these: Vicarius Filii Dei, which is the Latin for the Vicar of the Son of God. Catholics hold that the church which is a visible society must have a visible head. Christ, before His ascension into heaven, appointed St. Peter to act as His representative. Upon the death of Peter the man who succeeded to the office of Peter as Bishop of Rome, was recognized as the head of the Church. Hence to the Bishop of Rome, as head of the Church, was given the title “Vicar of Christ.”

Enemies of the Papacy denounce this title as a malicious assumption. But the Bible informs us that Christ did not only give His Church authority to teach, but also to rule. Laying claim to the authority to rule in Christ’s spiritual kingdom, in Christ’s stead, is not a whit more malicious than laying claim to the authority to teach in Christ’s name. And this every Christian minister does.

View a facsimile scan from microfilm. Contains sanctions for the editor from Pope Pius X, dated May 17, 1914; from Archbishop John Bonzano of Melitene, the Apostolic Delegate to the U.S., dated April 27, 1913; and from H. J. Alerding, Bishop of Fort Wayne, Indiana., dated March 29, 1912.

Our Sunday Visitor, Sept. 16, 1917.

Our Sunday Visitor had the following denial in the Bureau of Information section of the September 16, 1917 edition:

What application has the number 666 to Pope Benedict XV?
None whatever. Such an interpretation of Chapter XIII, Verse 18 of the Apocalypse is entirely unfounded and is nothing more than a display of malignant hatred. It is the effervescense of vacuous minds. Earlier commentators spent considerable time in trying to determine the personality of the beast, and they referred it to Nero Caesar; for by supplying the numerals for the Hebrew characters in his name, the number 666 was obtained. During the period of the Reformation and for years after, the Apocalypse furnished the basis of much political and religious incrimination. In later years, really reliable commentators have ceased the silly prattle about the Popes, Napoleon, Rome and subjecting the Book to the Rules of exegesis see a reference to conditions existing at the time of St. John. (This interpretation, of course, does not include the Resurrection, the millennium, and the plagues preceding the consummation of the world, as referring to principle events in the first century). In a “Dictionary of the Bible” edited by William Schmidt, a Protestant author, page 1038, will be found the following; “Ebrard reckons that not less than eighty systematic commentaries are worthy of note, and states the less valuable writings on this inexhaustible subject are unnumbered if not innumerable. Fanaticism, theological hatred, and vain curiosity may have largely influenced their composition.” Also on page 1039 we find the following: “Against the Historical scheme it is urged, that its advocates differ very widely among themselves; that they assume without any authority that the 1260 days are so many years; that several of its applications—e.g., of the symbol of the ten-horned beast to be the Popes, and the sixth seal to the conversion of Constantine—are inconsistent with the context; that attempts by some of this school to predict future events by the help of Revelation have ended in repeated failures.”
Besides, if present-day writers are so anxious to see the fulfillment in the person of the Pope, why not be consistent? Such interpreters have never shown that the title “Vicarius Filii Dei” is really inscribed upon the Pope’s tiara. Moreover, the passage states that the number refers to a man, in other words the numerals represented by the letters in his name, which total the sum 666. The words Vicarius Filii Dei are not the name of the Pope, they do not even constitute his official title. The name of our President is Woodrow Wilson. His title is President of the United States. If we take the name Benedict XV and follow out the same numerical addition, we find that his number instead of being 666 would be 1123.
This question was submitted to Rev. Earnest R. Hull and answered in the following manner: “Almost every eminent man in Christendom, who has enjoyed the privilege of possessing enemies, has had his name turned and twisted till they could get the number 666 out of it. In past history there have been numberless beasts or Anti-Christs, all of whose names counted up to 666. I fancy that my own name, especially in Latin form, might give the number of the beast:

5 1 50 500 5 5 50 50 =666

   Add these together and the result will be 666.
Quod erat demonstrandum
, namely, that Rev. Ernest R. Hull is Anti-Christ, or the Beast of the Apocalypse!”
Since the war fanatical “private interpreters” have made the number 666 refer to the Kaiser; others even to President Wilson.

View a facsimile scan from microfilm.

Several years later, again on page 3 in the section titled Bureau of Information, the title was affirmed, though it was denied that the title appeared on a tiara:

Our Sunday Visitor, July 23, 1922.

The Pope claims to be the vicar of the Son of God, while the Latin words for this designation are not inscribed, as anti-Catholics maintain, on the Pope’s tiara.

View a facsimile scan from microfilm.

Our Sunday Visitor, June 2, 1935.

The following challenge to Adventists appeared on page 5:

Lufkin, Texas

Most Rev. Bishop Noll:
I think your readers will be interested in the following letter, which was written in the interest of truth.

Editors, “Present Truth”.
Washington, D. C.:

I have just paid a visit to the Angelina County Jail here in Lufkin, Texas, where, through the courtesy of the Judge and the Sheriff, an opportunity was given to interview Glenn M. Warren (incarcerated on the charge of murder) whom you have won to your anti-Catholic belief. There he sits, poor fellow, using part of his dreary time and artistic talents in drawing, according to your directions, a picture of the tiara of the Pope with the words inscribed upon it “Vicarius Filii Dei” (Vicar of the Son of God) which he has figured out, as Seventh Day Adventism directs, to total the numerical value 666. This is intended to prove that the Pope is the beast, the anti-Christ in the 13th. Chapter of the Book of Revelation.
Your publications have so completely captured the mind of Glenn M. Warren (as it has others) that he, unfortunate young man, does not sense the falsity nor the viciousness of your contention. He knows only that were the anti-Christ to enter the Angelina County Jail he would be more easily recognized by his work of turning minds against the Catholic Church than by the numerical value of the name he fears. He would not be seen, as is the representative of the pope, the priest, going around from cell to cell directing the minds of prisners to Christ, to the Church of Christ, and to the sacraments Christ instituted to reconcile sinners with God.
I hereby enter a protest against the distribution of your misrepresentation among prisoners or sinners. It is an offense against Christian charity, which does not permit the intensification of religious animosity. You can see the evil result of it upon the sinner who is very likely to be sent to the electric chair. It turned his mind against Catholic Christians instead of towards Christ and Him crucified.
If “Present Truth” is published, as you say, to tell the truth, then would its editors and publishers refrain from filling its pages with a mass of oft-refuted statements against the Church that owes its origin to Jesus Christ, the Church to which Catholics have paid honor to their Lord and their God for 1900 years. Obedience to the law of charity calls upon you to cease embittering hearts and minds with the monstrous notion that the pope is the 666 in the book of Revelation. If it were a crime as well as a sin, you may be assured that you and your associated Seventh Day Adventists would be under lock and key for murdering truth. You are not just guilty of misrepresenting the Catholic, but you are also guilty of abusing the use of public places by your wanton disregard of the courtesy due to citizens and taxpayers who are Catholics. This you have done here in Lufkin, as elsewhere, by placing racks in the Court House, railway station and hotels that are filled with your insulting effusions.
Before going into a detailed reply to your charge it were well to let you know that this is not the first time that I have contacted your evil work. I have met it in all parts of the United States during the 70,000 mile lecture journey of the Catholic Campaigners For Christ. Heretofore I have contented myself with the reply that appears in my Campaigners For Christ Handbook, and by answering your Seventh Day Adventist clientele whenever they were brazen enough to present their offensive reference to the pope at outdoor meetings. It is the vicious work of drawing a man indicted for murder into the maelstrom of Seventh Day Adventist misrepresentation that promps me to write directly to headquarters in Tacoma Park to find out whether the time has come when a dispassionate, detailed refutation of the charge will turn you from furthering the assault for which God will surely punish its perpetrators if they do not repent and make reparation for their offense.
In the first place Protestant authorities of repute today are not, as you claim, “in practical agreement” that the beast—the anti-Christ—is the papal authority. To quote two in one book: “Word Studies In The New Testament”, by Marvin R. Vincent, D. D. Baldwin Professor of Sacred Literature in Union Theological Seminary, New York, 1905 (vol. II)—says rightly: “The interpretations of the number form a jungle from which escape is apparently hopeless. Reuss says: ‘This famous number has been made to yield almost all the historical names of the past eighteen centuries: Titus, Vespasian, Simon Groras; Julian the Apostate and Genseric; Mahomet and Luther; Benedict IX and Louis XV; Napoleon I., and the Duke of Ruchstadt; and it would not he diffcult, on the same principles, to read in any one’s name’.”
The correctness of this fact was demonstrated by the able Jesuit Father Hull of Bombay who Latinized his name—(Ernestus Reginalus Hull) to show the Seventh Day Adventists of India that according to their system of reckoning, he himself and not the pope is the anti-Christ in the Book of Revelation, for his name totals 666.
In the second place Protestant authorities of high standing are agreed that the name referred to in the 13th. Chapter of the Book of Revelation is that of a man and not the title of a man. I name the Unabridged Edition of Cruden’s Concordance (page 411) as one of many authorities that sustain this contention. The name of the occupant of the Chair of Peter is Pope Pius XI, and not Vicarius Filii Dei, and it does not total 666 in any language. But more than all, there is no such inscription on the Pope’s tiara.
Vicarius Filii Dei is not the pope’s title, though he is the vicar of Jesus Christ Who is the Son of God. His title, as can be found in Volume XV of the Catholic Encyclopedia, is (in Latin) Vicarius Christ and that totals (V 5-i I-c 100-i I u 5-c 100-i I I) 214 and not 666. The Catholic Encyclopedia says that at times the pope has been called Vicar of St. Peter, Vicar of the Apostolic See. But neither in the Catholic Encyclopedia, the Catholic Directory, nor in papal documents, is the pope titled Vicarius Filii Dei. Besides what warrant is there for assuming the name of the man referred to in the Book of Revelation is to appear in Latin? St. John wrote the Book in Greek and Vicar or Vicegerent of the Son of God in Greek does not total numerically 666 according to your ingenious system of reckoning. Evidently, you failed to examine, or thought your readers too undiscerning to note, that the quotation from “Labbe and Cossart’s History” in “Present Truth” (Page 3, Vol. 3, No. 20) rightly designates the pope as vicar of Christ, and not vicar of the Son of God.
In the fourth place if you will not go to Catholic authorities, as every just person should, to learn the title of the pope, then you might go to our leading dictionaries for the information. Ah no! Seventh Day Adventists find it more in harmony with their monstrous claim to draw upon their imagination or to go to some anti-Catholic source for their material. Webster’s New International Dictionary says that “vicar of (Jesus) Christ—the pope; is a title assumed with reference to his claim to represent Christ as head of the church on earth”. Please note that Webster says “head of the church ON EARTH” for “the papacy”‘ does not (as you insist in “Present Truth”) “set up a man as head of the church in place of Christ, offering him divine worship and addressing him in terms and titles which belong only to the Son of God”. Every one of the three hundred and more millions of Catholics in the world knows that such a thing would be a violation of the Law of God. The pope is, as Webster says,”head of the church on earth”, for Christ Jesus is held by Catholics to be the Supreme Head, the heavenly Head of His Universal Church which He promised to be with until the end of the world. Webster’s Dictionary says that a vicegerent, a vicar is a representative, one “having or exercising delegated power; acting by substitution, or in place of one delegating hi. power.”
My hope is that “Present Truth” will cease bearing false witness against Catholics by printing real truth. My hope is that its editors and associated preachers will call a halt to nailing Truth to the Cross as did Pilate, the Jews, and the Roman soldiers, through the circulation of error, slander and incentive to uncharitableness. I await your answer to this challenge.

David Goldstein.

Director, Nationwide tour of the Catholic Campaigners for Christ. Headquarters, 62 Essex Street, Boston. Mass.

View a facsimile scan from microfilm.

Our Sunday Visitor, Dec. 1, 1935.

Rev. Aquinas Knoff in an editorial on Vicarius Filii Dei states: “Thus, since the Bishop of Rome is actually all the title implies, by the divine appointment of Christ Himself, Who is the Son of God, no logical objection can be urged against the equivalent ascription, ‘Vicar of the Son of God.’”

View a facsimile scan from microfilm.

Our Sunday Visitor, Aug. 3, 1941.

In an article on page 7,  “… enemies of the Church publicize something that is not true, namely that the Pope’s tiara is inscribed with the words “VICARIUS FILII DEI”, and that if letters in that title were translated into Roman numerals the sum would equal 666. As a matter of fact the tiara of the Pope bears no inscription whatever.”

View a facsimile scan from microfilm.

The Vatican Council And Its Definitions: Pastoral Letter to the Clergy, By Henry Edward Manning, Archbishop of Westminster, Second Edition, New York, 1871, p. 166.

Our Sunday Visitor, in its The Catholic Answer, again explained Vicarius Filii Dei in the Question of the Day, on Nov 24, 2011:

Question of the Day for Thursday, November 24, 2011
What Does Vicarius Filii Dei Mean?

Q. Vicarius Filii Dei? What does this mean? Is it a phrase referring to the pope or priest? I have heard that it is inscribed on the pope’s hat, or something. Just curious to know what is it.

— Lloyd Howell

A. Here’s a reply from Father Reginald Martin:

Vicarius Filii Dei means “Vicar [or representative] of the Son of God,” a term scholars believe first appears in a document known as the “Donation of Constantine,” dated to the eight or ninth century. This is an apt description of the Pope, who is frequently referred to as “the Vicar of Christ,” and, at present, probably only the most bitterly anti-Catholic individuals would take offense at the title.

However, this has not always been the case. Foes of Catholicism from the 16th to the 19th centuries delighted in pointing out that the title could be turned into the “666” that is the “mark of the beast” in the Book of Revelation. (Those who have enjoyed Tolstoy’s “War and Peace” may smile as they remember that Napoleon’s name and title can be similarly manipulated).

An early reader asked Our Sunday Visitor about the title, and the newspaper replied (April 18, 1915) that it was inscribed on the papal tiara. A short time later, the journal printed a correction, which was repeated in a 1922 article. Scholars have examined the existing papal regalia (this amounts to quite a collection) and have found no evidence that any papal crown carries the title.

The University of Notre Dame has the above editions of Our Sunday Visitor on microfilm.

Our Sunday Visitor is still in business:

Our Sunday Visitor
200 Noll Plaza
Huntington, Indiana 46750
Phone: (800) 348-2440

Sightings on The Papal Tiara and Mitre

The most plausible name we have ever seen suggested as containing the number of the beast, is the blasphemous title which the pope applies to himself, and wears in jeweled letters upon his miter or pontifical crown. That title is this: Vicarious filii Dei: “Vicegerent of the Son of God.” Taking the letters out of this title which the Latins use as numerals, and giving them their numerical value, we have just 666. Thus we have V, 5; I, 1; C, 100; (a and r not used as numerals;) I, 1; U (formerly the same as V) 5; (s and f not used as numerals;) I, 1; L, 50; I, 1; I, 1; D, 500; (e not used as a numeral;) I, 1. Adding these numbers together, we have just 666.
The following extract on this point is from a work entitled “The Reformation,”[*] bearing the date of 1832:?
“Mrs. A., said Miss. Emmons, I saw a very curious fact the other day; I have dwelt upon it much and will mention it. A person, lately, was witnessing a ceremony of the Romish church. As [pg. 226] the Pope passed him in the procession, splendidly dressed in his pontifical robes, the gentleman’s eye rested on these full, blazing, letters in front of his miter: “VICARIOUS FILII DEI,” The Vicar of the Son of God.” His thoughts, with the rapidity of lightning, reverted to Rev. xiii, 18. Will you turn to it? said Mrs. A. Alice opened the New Testament and read:Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast; for it is the number of a man; and his number is six hundred three score and six.’She paused, and Miss. Emmons said, He took out his pencil, and, marking the numerical letters of the inscription on his tablet, it stood 666.”
Here we have indeed the number of a man, even the “man of sin;” and it is a little singular, perhaps providential, that he should select a title which shows the blasphemous character of the beast, and then cause it to be inscribed upon his miter, as if to brand himself with the number 666.

[*] The Reformation: A True Tale of the Sixteenth Century, by Anne Tuttle Jones Bullard, published in 1832 by the Massachusetts Sabbath School Society, Boston, Massachusetts, pgs. 247-248. Identification by Jerry A. Stevens, October 9, 2006.

Source: Thoughts, Critical and Practical, on the Book of Revelation, by Uriah Smith, published in 1865 by the Steam Press of the Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association, Battle Creek, Michigan, pgs. 225-226.

Note that Anne Bullard, on page 247, presents the title with the word VICARIVS, the old Latin spelling that uses a “V” for a “U”. This is likely to be the form of the word used if it appeared on a papal tiara or mitre. Uriah Smith on the other hand, misquotes Bullard, using the unlikely English spelling, VICARIOUS, which has “OU”. Smith in his later publications changes this to the more modern Latin, VICARIUS, using only a “U”, as shown below, which also may be the way it was inscribed with jewels on the papal mitre or tiara.

. . . The most plausible expression we have seen suggested as containing the number of the beast, is the title which the pope takes to himself, and allows others to apply to him. That title is this: Vicarius Filii Dei, “Vicegerent of the Son of God.” Taking the letters out of this title which the Latins used as numerals, and giving them their numerical value, we have just 666. Thus we have V, 5; I, 1; C, 100; (a and r not used as numerals); I, 1; U (formerly the same as V), 5; (s and f not used as numerals); I, 1; L, 50; I, 1; I, 1; D, 500 (e not used as a numeral); I, 1. Adding these numbers together, we have just 666.
This title, there is reason to believe, was formerly inscribed upon the pope’s crown. The following testimony on this point is given by the late Elder D. E. Scoles, of Washburn, Mo.:—
“I have met two men who declare that they have seen this specific crown; and their testimony is so perfectly in agreement that I am convinced that what they saw is true. The first man was M. De Latti, a Sabbath-keeper who had previously been a Catholic priest, and had spent four years in Rome. He visited me when I was pastor in St. Paul, Minn., several years ago. I showed him my tract,  ‘The Seal of God and the Mark of the Beast.’ He at once told me that the inscription was not correctly placed in my illustration. He stated that he had often seen it in the museum at the Vatican, and [pg. 625] gave a detailed and accurate description of the whole crown. When my tract was published [Feb. of 1895], I was ignorant of the arrangement of the words of the Latin inscriptions, hence, in the illustration of the crown, placed them in one line. Brother De Latti at once pointed out the mistake, and said the first word of the sentence was on the first crown of the triple arrangement, the second word on the second part of the crown, while the word Dei was on the lower division of the triple crown. He also explained that the first two words were in dark-colored jewels, while the Dei was composed entirely of diamonds.
“During a tent-meeting which I held in Webb City, Mo., I presented the subject, ‘The Seal of God and the Mark of the Beast.’ I used charts to illustrate it, one being a reproduction of the crown as Brother De Latti had described it. A Presbyterian minister was present, Rev. B. Hoffman, and when I described the crown, he spoke out publicly and made a statement to the congregation, saying that while in Rome studying for the priesthood, he had seen this very crown, and noted its inscription, and that the word Dei was composed of one hundred diamonds. I met him and learned his name, and visited him at his home, and was convinced from his description that this was the identical crown that Brother De Latti had seen, but which has been denied by many. I then asked him for a written statement, and he gave me the following:—
    ” ‘ To Whom It May Concern: This is to certify that I was born in Bavaria in 1828, was educated in Munich, and was reared a Roman Catholic. In 1844 and 1845 I was a student for the priesthood in the Jesuit College in Rome. During the Easter service of 1845, Pope Gregory XVI wore a triple crown upon which was the inscription, in jewels, Vicarius Filii Dei. We were told that there were one hundred diamonds in the word Dei; the other words were of some other kind of precious stones of a darker color. There was one word upon each crown, and not all on the same line. I was present at the service, and saw the crown distinctly, and noted it carefully.
” ‘ In 1850 I was converted to God and to Protestantism. Two years later I entered the Evangelical Church ministry, but later in life I united with the Presbyterian Church, of [pg. 626] which I am now a retired pastor, having been in the ministry for fifty years.
” ‘ I have made the above statement at the request of Elder D. E. Scoles, as he states that some deny that the pope ever wore this tiara. But I know that he did, for I saw it upon his head.

” ‘ Sincerely yours in Christian service,
(Signed)          ” ‘ B. HOFFMAN.
[Balthazer Hoffmann]

    ” ‘ Webb City, Mo., Oct. 29, 1906.’ “

The following extract is from a work entitled The Reformation,[*] bearing the date of 1832:—
” ‘ Mrs. A.,’ said Miss Emmons, ‘ I saw a very curious fact the other day; I have dwelt upon it much, and will mention it. A person, lately, was witnessing a ceremony of the Romish Church. As the pope passed him in procession, splendidly dressed in his pontifical robes, the gentleman’s eye rested on these full, blazing letters in front of his miter: “VICARIUS FILII DEI,” the Vicar of the Son of God. His thoughts, with the rapidity of lightning, reverted to Rev. 13:18.’ ‘Will you turn to it?’ said Mrs. A. Alice opened the New Testament and read: ‘Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.’ She paused, and Miss Emmons said, ‘He took out his pencil, and marking the numerical letters of the inscription on his tablet, it stood 666.’ ”
Here we have indeed the number of a man, even the man of sin; and it is a little singular, perhaps providential, that he should select a title which shows the blasphemous character of the beast, and then cause it to be inscribed upon his miter, as if to brand himself with the number 666.

[*] The Reformation: A True Tale of the Sixteenth Century, by Anne Tuttle Jones Bullard, published in 1832 by the Massachusetts Sabbath School Society, Boston, Massachusetts, pgs. 247-248. Identification by Jerry A. Stevens, October 9, 2006.

Source: Daniel  and the Revelation. The Response of History to the Voice of Prophecy: A Verse by Verse Study of These Important Books of the Bible, by Uriah Smith, Southern Publishing Association, Nashville, Tennessee, copyright 1907 by Mrs. Uriah Smith, (published sometime after May of 1911), pgs. 624-626.

Elder D. E. Scoles’ account was also published in the Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, Dec, 20, 1906, page 10.

Easter Mass 1843

A Rev. Joel Tyler Headley, in the April 1845 edition of the Christian Parlor magazine, wrote that he had visited Rome and witnessed the spectacle of the Easter service in St. Peter’s, and mentioned that the Pope wore a triple tiara to and from the service, though he did not take note of any inscription. He also published his account in his Letters From Italy, published in 1845 & 1847 in New York, Wiley and Putnam, 161 Broadway, (Revised, 1848, New York, Baker & Scribner), pages 115-121, in which he dates his visit to St. Peter’s as Easter of 1843.

I have received what seems to be reliable information that a photo may exist (similar to the one below) of a papal funeral in St. Peter’s Basilica near the beginning of the 20th century, in which the tiara inscribed with Vicarius Filii Dei can be seen. Combined with the above claims of Our Sunday Visitor, this would indicate that it was the funeral of either Leo XIII (1878-1903), or Pius X (1903-1914), and that previous popes probably wore the tiara in question. If anyone can turn up any photos and make them available to me, I will post them in this article.


  • The Trenton Times of New Jersey reported on July 23rd, 1903, that during the first of nine days of mourning for Pope Leo XIII, his coffin was publicly displayed on a catafalque in the choir chapel opposite the Chapel of the Sacrament, surmounted by a triple tiara.
  • The Reno Evening Gazette reported on July 28th, 1903, that for a requiem Mass for Leo XIII, a large catafalque was placed in the Sistine chapel, and on top of it was displayed a triple tiara on two cushions.

Catafalque in the Sistine chapel for the requiem Masses for Pope Leo XIII.
A triple tiara can be seen at the top.


  • The Syracuse Herald of New York reported on August 21, 1914 that the body of Pope Pius X lay in state wearing pontifical vestments, to include a triple crown.
  • The Nevada State Journal of Reno reported on August 29th, 1914 that at the first of three funeral Masses for Pope Pius X in the Sistine chapel, attended by nearly 50 cardinals, a triple crown was displayed on a large catafalque.
The body of Pope Pius X (who died in 1914) on display in front of St. Peter’s high altar during a Pontifical Mass on May 30th, 1954, celebrating his canonization as a Saint the prior evening.  A papal tiara can be seen above the glass-sided casket.


That the papal tiara was routinely worn both before and after a pontifical Mass at the Vatican, is demonstrated by the following 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia entry:


Pontifical Mass

The solemn pontifical Mass celebrated by the pope in St. Peter’s has some peculiar ceremonies. … The pope, wearing the falda, amice, alb, cincture, pectoral cross, stola, cope (mantum), and tiara is carried into the basilica on the sedia gestatoria under the canopy and with the two flabella borne on either side. … The pope returns to the altar to finish the Mass. After the blessing the assistant priest publishes the plenary indulgence. At the end of the last Gospel the pope goes to the sedia gestatoria, puts on the tiara, and returns in procession as he had entered.

Source: The 1911 Catholic Encyclopedia Online, volume 12.

Crowned Pope Pius XII on the Sedia Gestatoria

Pope John XXIII celebrating Mass at St. Peter’s.
Two triple tiaras can be seen on the altar to the Pope’s right and a mitre to his left.

Note the following item in a widely circulated Catholic publication from 1938. In it the title Vicarius Filii Dei and 666 is discussed, but the validity of Vicarius Filii Dei as a papal title is not denied:

345.   I have heard that he [the pope] is Anti-Christ, and that he was described by St. John as 666, the numerical equivalent of the Latin words of the Pope’s title, Vicarius Filii Dei.

That interpretation is absurd, and rejected by all reputable scholars, Catholic and non-Catholic alike. In any case, St. John wrote in Greek, and there is no warrant whatever for the translation to the Latin language. Moreover, whatever be the true interpretation of this mystical number, it certainly refers to some one individual being. If it referred to one particular Pope, it could refer to none of the others. To which Pope will people refer it? To a past Pope? Then he is dead and gone, and we need not worry about him. To the present Pope? He is the very antithesis of all the conditions of the Beast as described by St. John. However, the number does not refer to any of the Popes at all.

Source: Radio Replies, First Volume, by Rev. Dr. Leslie Rumble, M.S.C. and Rev. Charles Mortimer Carty, Copyright 1938, printed by Radio Replies Press, St. Paul 1, Minn., U.S.A., #345, page 80.


Some Catholics will respond to the Seventh-day Adventist that the number 666 can similarly be derived from the name of Ellen Gould White, a prominent figure in the Adventist church (see the article at New Advent). The calculation is made as follows:

50 50 5 50 500 10 1

The letter “w” is asserted to be the equivalent of a double “v” or “u”, which has a value of 5 and is therefore 10 when doubled.. However, in Latin and Roman numerals there was no “w” with a value of 10. A single “v” was used to represent the “w”, “v” and “u” sound, The double-u (w) apparently evolved many centuries later in other languages, but not Roman numerals. The valid Roman numerals are:

Letter Value
I 1
V 5
X 10
L 50
C 100
D 500
M 1,000

So, ELLEN GOVLD WHITE does not, in fact, add up to 666. Be that as it may, for the moment, lets accept the application to Ellen White. Does this indicate that she is a likely candidate for the Antichrist or beast described in Revelation 13? Even the Catholics that raised this issue do not seriously consider Ellen White to be the Antichrist that scripture warns about. She will simply not fit the many other characteristics attributed to the Antichrist. Using this random method of application to individuals, it is apparent that there might be literally thousands of names that add up to 666, particularly if they are manipulated and Latinized as Rev. Ernest R. Hull demonstrated in the Our Sunday Visitor article above. Clearly this approach is sheer foolishness, and proves nothing, but this deliberate attempt at obscurantism by Catholics in no way invalidates Roman numeral gematria as the solution to 666.

Logically, all the other characteristics of “the Antichrist” must be considered and successfully met first. Only then should solving the mystery of 666 be attempted, after all the other biblical criteria have been solved satisfactorily, eliminating all who do not qualify. Then applying 666 will surely result in a unique, unambiguous, and extraordinarily powerful validation that will prove impossible to duplicate with any other entity. See the series of articles beginning at The 3 Angel’s Messages and also The Contextual Biblical Exegesis Of 666 In Revelation 13:18 for this methodology in practice.


Vicarius Filii Dei was used twice by Pope Paul VI in documents found on the Vatican’s web site. These are Apostolic Constitutions, which are the highest form of official Papal decree in the Roman Catholic Church and are issued with binding legal authority. Historically these decrees were known as papal bulls, the name referring to the lead metal seal (bulla) attached to authenticate the document. As a general rule, the superscription that opens papal bulls typically reads:

So, the following Apostolic Constitutions begin:

Rivi Muniensis (August 9, 1965), Decree of Paul VI creating the Vicariate Apostolic of Río Muni, Equatorial Guinea:
Acta Apostolicae Sedis
, Commentarium Officiale, vol. LVIII (1966), n. 6, pp. 421-422. Libreria Editrice Vaticana, ISBN 8820960664, 9788820960667. Scans: Title page421422.

Qui summi Dei numine et voluntate principem locum in Christi Ecclesia, obtinemus, adorandi Filii Dei hic in terris Vicarii Petrique successores, …
We who the supreme God providentially wills, and maintains, in the principle position over Christ’s Church, the worshipful Son of God’s Vicar(s) upon the earth, Peter’s successor(s), …

Bafianae (January 11, 1968), Decree of Paul VI elevating the Prefecture Apostolic of Bafia, Cameroon, to a Diocese:
Acta Apostolicae Sedis
, Commentarium Officiale, vol. LX (1968), n. 6, pp. 317-319. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. ISBN 8820960680, 9788820960681. (Scans in pdf)

Adorandi Dei Filii Vicarius et Procurator, quibus numen aeternum summam Ecclesiae sanctae dedit, …
As the worshipful Son of God’s Vicar and Caretaker, to whom the eternal divine will has given the highest rank of the holy Church, …

Acta Apostolicae Sedis (Acts of the Apostolic See) is the official publication of the Holy See, and documents published in it are considered authentic and officially promulgated. The Vatican’s web site for their Secret Archives estimates the total number of papal documents to be above 30 million. This is a staggering number of documents, and makes it a virtual certainty that Vicarius Filii Dei was used in other official documents that have yet to be discovered.

So, since the Donation of Constantine, which was held by the Roman Catholic Church for over 600 years to be a valid document transferring authority from Emperor Constantine, Vicarius Filii Dei continued to appear in Catholic publications, and official papal decrees, well into the 20th century. This is irrefutable proof that it is not a Protestant invention.

English translations of the above Apostolic Constitutions are not available on the Vatican web site. However, regarding the translation of Rivi Muniensis, a similar wording in Latin was used by Cardinal Robert Bellarmine (1542-1621) that can act as a guide. Here is one example in his De Ecclesia militante:

As thus understood, the definition of the Church given by Bellarmine is that usually adopted by Catholic theologians: “A body of men united together by the profession of the same Christian Faith, and by participation in the same sacraments, under the governance of lawful pastors, more especially of the Roman Pontiff, the sole vicar of Christ on earth” (Cœtus hominum ejusdem christianse fidei professione, et eorumdem sacramentorum communione colligatus, sub regimine legitimorum pastorum et praecipue unius Christi in Terris vicarii Romani Pontificis.—Bellarmine, De Eccl., III, ii, 9).

Source: The Catholic Encyclopedia, Volume Three, copyright 1908 by Robert Appleton Co., and 1913 by The Encyclopedia Press, entry on The Church, page 745.

Note that in the above translation of the Latin: “unius Christi in Terris vicarii Romani Pontificis”, “vicarii” does not apply to “Romani Pontificis” (i.e., vicar of the Roman Pontiff), but rather it applies to the preceding “Christi” (vicar of Christ on earth). This indicates that in the similarly worded Rivi Muniensis, “Vicarii” applies to “Filii Dei” (Son of God’s vicar upon the earth), not “Petrique Successores” (vicar of Peter’s successor, or vicar and successor of Peter) as an English speaker might presume. It is also worth noting that Cardinal Bellarmine’s definition of the Christian Church excludes those who do not consider themselves subject to the authority of the Roman Pontiff, which is to say that Protestants are not part of the Church.

From Crossing The Threshold of Hope, by Pope John Paul II:
First Chapter: “The Pope”: A Scandal and a Mystery (bold emphasis is mine):

[pg. 3] The leader of the Catholic Church is defined by the faith as the Vicar of Jesus Christ (and is accepted as such by believers). The Pope is considered the man on earth who represents the Son of God, who “takes the place” of the Second Person of the omnipotent God of the Trinity.

[pg. 6] Have no fear when people call me the “Vicar of Christ,” when they say to me “Holy Father,” or “Your Holiness,” or use titles similar to these, which seem even inimical [hostile] to the Gospel. Christ himself declared: “Call no one on earth your father; you have but one Father in heaven. Do not be called ‘Master’; you have but one master, the Messiah” (Mt 23:9-10). These expressions, nevertheless, have evolved out of a long tradition, becoming part of common usage. One must not be afraid of these words either.

[pg. 13] The Pope is not the only one who holds this title. With regard to the Church entrusted to him, each bishop is Vicarius Christi.

Note that on page three of the Pope’s book, “represents the Son of God” is synonymous with “Vicar of Jesus Christ”. A vicar clearly represents, substitutes for, or “takes the place” of another, as stated. Consequently “represents the Son of God” can be translated in Latin as Vicarius Filii Dei, which in Roman Numerals will add up to 666. The title Vicarius Christi, translated into English, means a substitute for Christ, i.e., Antichrist, as demonstrated above, which is applied by the Pope to every bishop of the Catholic Church!

The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary for Revelation 13:18 states:

    18. Here is wisdom. Compare the phrase, “here is the mind which hath wisdom” (ch. 17:9). The wisdom here commended is doubtless that to which Paul refers in Eph. 1:17. Only by divine enlightenment will men understand the mysteries of the Word of God (see on 1 Cor. 2:14).
Understanding. Or, “intelligence.” Those who wish to know the meaning of the cryptic number may understand.
Count. Or, “calculate.”
Number of the beast. It should be noted that the beast has already been conclusively identified (see on vs. 1–10). The number provides confirmatory evidence of this.
Since the early days of Christianity there has been much discussion as to the significance of 666. One of the earliest to write on the subject was Irenaeus (c. a.d. 130–c. 202). He identified the beast as the Antichrist, and believed that the numerical values of the letters of his name would add up to 666. He suggested the name Teitan, a name sometimes accounted divine, as having great probability. He also suggested, but as much less probable, the name Lateinos, this being the name of the last kingdom of the four seen by Daniel. At the same time he warned that “it is therefore more certain, and less hazardous, to await the fulfillment of the prophecy, than to be making surmises, and casting about for any names that may present themselves, inasmuch as many names can be found possessing the number mentioned” (Against Heresies v. 30. 3; ANF, vol. 1, p. 559).  Since Irenaeus’ day 666 has been applied to many names. The number alone cannot identify the beast since numerous names can add up to 666. However, inasmuch as the beast has already been identified, the number 666 must have a relationship to this power. Otherwise there would be no valid reason for the angel giving John the information contained in v. 18, at this point in the prophetic narrative. An interpretation that gained currency in the period following the Reformation was that 666 stood for Vicarius Filii Dei, meaning “vicar of the Son of God,” one of the titles for the pope of Rome. The numerical value of the component letters of this title totals 666 as follows:

V 5
I 1
C 100
A …..
R …..
I 1
V (U=V) 5
S …..
F …..
I 1
L 50
I 1
I 1
D 500
E …..
I 1

This interpretation was based on the identification of the pope as Antichrist, the historic Reformation concept. The principal exponent of this interpretation was Andreas Helwig (c. 1572–1643; see L. E. Froom, The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers, vol. 2, pp. 605–608). Many since his day have adopted this interpretation. Inasmuch as this commentary identifies the beast as the papacy, it also accepts this view as being the beast thus far presented, though recognizing that there may be more implied in the cryptogram than this interpretation provides.
Regarding the title Vicarius Filii Dei, the Catholic journal Our Sunday Visitor, of April 18, 1915, reported in answer to a query, “What are the letters supposed to be in the Pope’s crown, and what do they signify, if anything?” “The letters inscribed in the Pope’s mitre are these: Vicarius Filii Dei, which is the Latin for Vicar of the Son of God. Catholics hold that the Church which is a visible society must have a visible head” (p. 3). The issue of November 15, 1914, admitted that the Latin numerals added together total 666, but went on to declare that many other names also yield this total. In the issue of August 3, 1941, page 7, the subject of Vicarius Filii Dei again came up for discussion, and the statement was made that this title is not inscribed on the pope’s tiara. The tiara, it averred, bears no inscription whatsoever (p. 7). The Catholic Encyclopedia distinguishes between the mitre and the tiara by describing the tiara as a non-liturgical ornament and the mitre as one worn for liturgical functions. Whether the inscription Vicarius Filii Dei appears on the tiara or the mitre is really beside the point. The title is admittedly applied to the pope, and that is sufficient for the purposes of prophecy.

Nichol, Francis D., Commentary on Daniel and Revelation, The Seventh-day Adventist Bible Commentary, (Washington, D.C.: Review and Herald Publishing Association), 2008, ISBN: 9780828011709, pgs. 823-824 (from Vol. 7, Philippians to Revelation).

The Doctrine of the Trinity


One of the early controversies in the church was that of the nature of God and the Trinity. In brief, in the 4th century, Arius, an elder in Alexandria began teaching that Jesus Christ was a created being, and that before being created by God the Father, Jesus did not exist. (This belief is now called Arianism). The archdeacon of Alexandria, Athanasius, opposed Arius, and in the synod of 321 Arius was deposed. In 325 Emperor Constantine convened the first ecumenical council at Nicea and the matter was considered. One faction or the other predominated over the following years, and Athanasius himself was banished as many as five times when Arianism prevailed.

Eventually the church formulated and adopted the Athanasian creed, which declared Father, Son and Holy Spirit to be equal and co-eternal, affirming the doctrine of the trinity.

But what does the Bible say of the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit?

The Deity of God the Father

John 6:27 Labour not for the meat which perisheth, but for that meat which endureth unto everlasting life, which the Son of man shall give unto you: for him hath God the Father sealed.

1 Cor 8:6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.

Gal 1:1 Paul, an apostle, (not of men, neither by man, but by Jesus Christ, and God the Father, who raised him from the dead;)

Gal 1:3 Grace be to you and peace from God the Father, and from our Lord Jesus Christ,

Eph 6:23 Peace be to the brethren, and love with faith, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ.

Phil 2:11 And that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.

1 Th 1:1 Paul, and Silvanus, and Timotheus, unto the church of the Thessalonians which is in God the Father and in the Lord Jesus Christ: Grace be unto you, and peace, from God our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ.

2 Tim 1:2 To Timothy, my dearly beloved son: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and Christ Jesus our Lord.

Titus 1:4 To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour.

1 Pet 1:2 Elect according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through sanctification of the Spirit, unto obedience and sprinkling of the blood of Jesus Christ: Grace unto you, and peace, be multiplied.

2 Pet 1:17 For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

2 John 1:3 Grace be with you, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and from the Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of the Father, in truth and love.

Jude 1:1 Jude, the servant of Jesus Christ, and brother of James, to them that are sanctified by God the Father, and preserved in Jesus Christ, and called:

Luke 3:21 Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened,
Luke 3:22 And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased.

The Deity of Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

Mat 18:10 Take heed that ye despise not one of these little ones; for I say unto you, That in heaven their angels do always behold the face of my Father which is in heaven.

Mat 26:39 And he went a little farther, and fell on his face, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if it be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless not as I will, but as thou wilt.

Mat 26:42 He went away again the second time, and prayed, saying, O my Father, if this cup may not pass away from me, except I drink it, thy will be done.

Mat 26:63 [NIV] But Jesus remained silent. The high priest said to him, “I charge you under oath by the living God: Tell us if you are the Christ, the Son of God.”
Mat 26:64 “Yes, it is as you say,” Jesus replied. “But I say to all of you: In the future you will see the Son of Man sitting at the right hand of the Mighty One and coming on the clouds of heaven.”

John 8:17 It is also written in your law, that the testimony of two men is true.
John 8:18 I am one that bear witness of myself, and the Father that sent me beareth witness of me.
John 8:19 Then said they unto him, Where is thy Father? Jesus answered, Ye neither know me, nor my Father: if ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also.

John 9:35 Jesus heard that they had cast him out; and when he had found him, he said unto him, Dost thou believe on the Son of God?
John 9:36 He answered and said, Who is he, Lord, that I might believe on him?
John 9:37 And Jesus said unto him, Thou hast both seen him, and it is he that talketh with thee.
John 9:38 And he said, Lord, I believe. And he worshipped him.

John 10:30 I and my Father are one.
John 10:31 Then the Jews took up stones again to stone him.
John 10:32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I showed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?
John 10:33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.

John 13:13 Ye call me Master and Lord: and ye say well; for so I am.

Rev 1:8 I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty.

Eph 3:9 And to make all men see what is the fellowship of the mystery, which from the beginning of the world hath been hid in God, who created all things by Jesus Christ:

Col 1:12 Giving thanks unto the Father, which hath made us meet to be partakers of the inheritance of the saints in light:
Col 1:13 Who hath delivered us from the power of darkness, and hath translated us into the kingdom of his dear Son:
Col 1:14 In whom we have redemption through his blood, even the forgiveness of sins:
Col 1:15 Who is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn of every creature:
Col 1:16 For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:

Col 2:8 Beware lest any man spoil you through philosophy and vain deceit, after the tradition of men, after the rudiments of the world, and not after Christ.
Col 2:9 For in him dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead bodily.

John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.
John 1:2 The same was in the beginning with God.
John 1:3 All things were made by him; and without him was not any thing made that was made.
John 1:14 And the Word was made flesh, and dwelt among us, (and we beheld his glory, the glory as of the only begotten of the Father,) full of grace and truth.

The Wordis identified as God and creator here in John, and the Wordwas made flesh, God incarnate.In conjunction with Ephesians 3:9 and Colossians 1:12-16, this is clearly speaking of Jesus Christ as God and Creator.The Deity of the Holy Spirit.

Acts 5:3 But Peter said, Ananias, why hath Satan filled thine heart to lie to the Holy Ghost, and to keep back part of the price of the land?
Acts 5:4 Whiles it remained, was it not thine own? and after it was sold, was it not in thine own power? why hast thou conceived this thing in thine heart? thou hast not lied unto men, but unto God.

Here in verse 3, Peter says Ananias has lied to the Holy Ghost, and in the next verse Peter says Ananias has lied to God. Clearly then according to Peter, the Holy Spiritis indeed deity, a part of the Godhead. This is alsoapparent from the following verse in the book ofMatthew-

Mat 28:19 Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost:

According to Matthew, baptism isto be in the name of all three persons of the Godhead.Also, according to Scripture, the Holy Spirit –

  • Participated in creation – Gen 1:2
  • Is a Comforter – John 14:26
  • Is eternal – Heb 9:14
  • Speaks – 1 Tim 4:1; Rev 14:13
  • Teaches – John 14:26
  • Reveals the future – Luke 2:26
  • Bears Witness – Rom 8:16
  • Guides to the truth – John 16:13
  • Gives life (quickens) – Rom 8:11; 1Pet 3:18
  • Reproves – John 16:8
  • Makes Intercession – Rom 8:26
  • Indwells the believer – 1 Cor 6:19
  • Distributes gifts – 1 Cor 12:11
  • Seals the believer – Eph 1:13, 4:30
  • Invites the Sinner – Rev 22:17
  • Can be Blasphemed – Mat 12:31-32
  • Conceived Jesus in Mary – Mat 1:20

A Trinity, but only one God

Mal 2:10 Have we not all one father? hath not one God created us? why do we deal treacherously every man against his brother, by profaning the covenant of our fathers?

Mark 12:32 And the scribe said unto him, Well, Master, thou hast said the truth: for there is one God; and there is none other but he:

Rom 3:30 Seeing it is one God, which shall justify the circumcision by faith, and uncircumcision through faith.

1 Cor 8:6 But to us there is but one God, the Father, of whom are all things, and we in him; and one Lord Jesus Christ, by whom are all things, and we by him.

Eph 4:6 One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all.

1 Tim 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

James 2:19 Thou believest that there is one God; thou doest well: the devils also believe, and tremble.

One God, Yet TriuneAll three entities of the Trinity were present at the baptism of Jesus-

Mat 3:13 Then cometh Jesus from Galilee to Jordan unto John, to be baptized of him.
Mat 3:14 But John forbad him, saying, I have need to be baptized of thee, and comest thou to me?
Mat 3:15 And Jesus answering said unto him, Suffer it to be so now: for thus it becometh us to fulfil all righteousness. Then he suffered him.
Mat 3:16 And Jesus, when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him:
Mat 3:17 And lo a voice from heaven, saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased.

So the Bible teaches that the Father, the Son Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit are all deity, each distinct, yet each part of the Godhead, but there is only one God. While difficult for humanity to comprehend, the Trinity is indeed the truth, not because of the creeds of men, but because it is taught by the Bible.

The Mark Of The Beast In Daniel 8 – 12


(Dan 11:44 But tidings out of the east and out of the north shall trouble him:)

Dan 7:25 And he [the little horn] shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

Daniel 7 repeats the empires theme of Daniel 2 and enlarges on the information on the divided Roman Empire by providing more details  According to Daniel 7, the little horn power arises after the fall and division of the Roman Empire as represented by the 10 horns, which are introduced in Daniel 2 as the 10 toes of the statue.

The book of Daniel is unsealed in the revelation to John, and carries us forward to the last scenes of this earth’s history. {18MR 15.3}

The book of Daniel is understood or unsealed when the book of Revelation is applied to it. Note that there are two specific points that the little horn thinks he can change, the times and laws of the most High.


Acts 1:7 (KJV) And he said unto them, It is not for you to know the times or the seasons, which the Father hath put in his own power.


The times that Jesus refers to here are the prophetic times that have the date of their fulfilment set by the Father. This, as we shall see, is the way “times”should be understood in Dan. 7:25. We will now apply the book of Revelation to Dan. 7:25 to unseal it. 



Rev 12:17 And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed [Dan. 11:44], which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.

In Revelation 12 there are also two specific points that distinguish the true end time church,  they keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ, which incurs the wrath of Satan. These are the exact same two points mentioned in Daniel 7. The law in Daniel 7:25 equates with the commandments of God in Revelation 12:17. The times in Daniel 7:25 equates with the testimony of Jesus Christ in Revelation 12:17, which is further defined in Revelation 19:

Rev 19:10 And I fell at his feet to worship him. And he said unto me, See thou do it not: I am thy fellowservant, and of thy brethren that have the testimony of Jesus: worship God: for the testimony of Jesus is the spirit of prophecy.


So the times in Daniel 7:25 equates with the spirit of prophecy, which is to say prophetic times. Laws in Daniel 7:25 equates with the commandments of God in Revelation 12:17. These same two points are even further defined in Revelation 14:

Rev 14:6 And I saw another angel fly in the midst of heaven, having the everlasting gospel to preach unto them that dwell on the earth, and to every nation, and kindred, and tongue, and people,
Rev 14:7 Saying with a loud voice, Fear God, and give glory to him; for the hour of his judgment is come: and worship him that made heaven, and earth, and the sea (See Exo. 20:11), and the fountains of waters.

We now can see that “times and laws” in Daniel 7:25 explicitly refers to the prophetic time of judgment, and the Sabbath, the fourth commandment (Exo. 20:11), and these are proclaimed as the everlasting gospel. These two points are also found paired together here:

Lev 19:30 Ye shall keep my sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary: I am the LORD.

Lev 26:2 Ye shall keep my sabbaths, and reverence my sanctuary: I am the LORD.

Ezek 23:38 Moreover this they have done unto me: they have defiled my sanctuary in the same day, and have profaned my sabbaths.


Daniel 8 is a vision that repeats and enlarges on the vision of Daniel 7, where we now know the little horn thinks to change the prophetic time of judgment (times) and the seventh day Sabbath (laws), so we should expect to find these two points in Daniel 8 too. The first is easy to find:

Dan 8:14 And he said unto me, Unto two thousand and three hundred days; then shall the sanctuary be cleansed.

The Investigative Judgment which began at the conclusion of the 2300 days (1844) is the prophetic time of Daniel 7:25 that the little horn denies and thinks to change in an effort to obscure it. The sanctuary and the day of atonement illustrate the present truth ministry of Christ our high priest in the process of dealing with the sins of His people. How has this been obscured and changed?

To begin with, the little horn in Daniel is said in the Catholic Douay Rheims Bible to be Antiochus IV Epiphanes, and the 2300 days are said to be the 6 years and about 4 months of persecution that ended with his death. This interpretation rejects the day for a year principle which establishes the associated 70 week prophecy in Daniel chapter 9 as 490 years, which the note in the Douay Rheims accepts. But there is another way the work of atonement by Christ our high priest in the heavenly sanctuary is obscured.

Pope Tells Catholics Not To Seek Forgiveness Directly From God!

28. … It is good to renew and reaffirm this faith at a moment when it might be weakening, losing something of its completeness or entering into an area of shadow and silence, threatened as it is by the negative elements of the above-mentioned crisis. For the sacrament of confession is indeed being undermined, on the one hand by the obscuring of the mortal and religious conscience, the lessening of a sense of sin, the distortion of the concept of repentance and the lack of effort to live an authentically Christian life. And on the other hand, it is being undermined by the sometimes widespread idea that one can obtain forgiveness directly from God, even in a habitual way, without approaching the sacrament of reconciliation. A further negative influence is the routine of a sacramental practice sometimes lacking in fervor and real spontaneity, deriving perhaps from a mistaken and distorted idea of the effects of the sacrament.

Source: Pope John Paul II, Apostolic Exhortation RECONCILIATION AND PENANCE, dated December 2nd, 1984.

The Pope is saying that a Catholic must seek out a priest to confess their sins and ask forgiveness only through the priest, and that this “sacrament” of confession / penance is undermined by those who think they can approach God directly for forgiveness. This makes the Catholic priest essential in the process of salvation, since he stands in the place of God, as another mediator between man and God. This is not a novel teaching in the Catholic Church, is has a long history:

   St. Leo the Great (440-461) writes: “God in His abundant mercy has provided two remedies for the sins of men; that they may gain eternal life by the grace of Baptism, and also by the remedy of Penance. Those who have violated the vows of their Baptism may obtain the remission of their sins by condemning themselves; the divine goodness has so decreed that [pg. 284] the pardon of God can only be obtained by sinners through the prayers of the priests. Jesus Christ Himself has conferred upon the rulers of the Church the power of imposing canonical penance upon sinners who confess their sins, and of allowing them to receive the Sacraments of Christ, after they have purified their souls by a salutary satisfaction. . . . ” (Epis. cviii.). [Emphasis supplied]

Source: The Question Box, New Edition, by Rev. Bertrand L. Conway, Copyright 1929 by “The Missionary Society of St. Paul the Apostle, New York, published by The Paulist Press, 401 West 59th Street, New York, pages 283-284.

Note what scripture says about confessing our sins to God:

Heb 4:14 Seeing then that we have a great high priest, that is passed into the heavens, Jesus the Son of God, let us hold fast our profession.
Heb 4:15 For we have not an high priest which cannot be touched with the feeling of our infirmities; but was in all points tempted like as we are, yet without sin.
Heb 4:16 Let us therefore come boldly unto the throne of grace, that we may obtain mercy, and find grace to help in time of need.

1 Tim 2:5 For there is one God, and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ Jesus;

1 John 1:7 But if we walk in the light, as he is in the light, we have fellowship one with another, and the blood of Jesus Christ his Son cleanseth us from all sin.
1 John 1:8 If we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and the truth is not in us.
1 John 1:9 If we confess our sins, he is faithful and just to forgive us our sins, and to cleanse us from all unrighteousness.
1 John 1:10 If we say that we have not sinned, we make him a liar, and his word is not in us.
1 John 2:1 My little children, these things write I unto you, that ye sin not. And if any man sin, we have an advocate with the Father, Jesus Christ the righteous:

In Matt 9:2-6, Mark 2:5-12, and Luke 5:18-25 Christ publicly forgives a man’s sins, and the scribes and Pharisees thinking Christ a mere man, accuse Him of blasphemy, because as they reasoned: Who can forgive sins, but God alone? Claiming to be able to forgive a man’s sins is called blasphemy, it is something only God can do.

The Catholic teaching cited above is clearly in direct opposition to scripture.
This leaves the 4th commandment to be found in Daniel 8.

Dan 8:11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.

Note that in verse 11 we again have two points, the daily and the sanctuary. As we have seen previously, the parallel to times in Daniel 7:25  is the cleansing of the sanctuary after 2300 days (years) in verse 14, the judgment on the day of atonement. So for the parallel to laws in Daniel 7:25, let’s now examine the daily. The word translated daily [H8548 – tamiyd] can also have the meaning perpetual (Exo. 30:8 Lev. 6:20). The word sacrifice in the above verse is supplied by the translators, it is not in the original text and should be ignored.

Dan 8:11 Yea, he magnified himself even to the prince of the host, and by him the daily [perpetual] sacrifice was taken away, and the place of his sanctuary was cast down.
Dan 8:12 And an host was given him against the daily [perpetual] sacrifice by reason of transgression, and it cast down the truth to the ground; and it practiced, and prospered.
Dan 8:13 Then I heard one saint speaking, and another saint said unto that certain saint which spake, How long shall be the vision concerning the daily [perpetual] sacrifice, and the transgression of desolation, to give both the sanctuary and the host to be trodden under foot?

We can see above that the daily / perpetual is taken away and replaced by what is called the transgression of desolation. What truth is cast to the ground by the transgression?

Psa 119:142 Thy righteousness is an everlasting righteousness, and thy law is the truth.

1 John 3:4 Whosoever committeth sin transgresseth also the law: for sin is the transgression of the law.

Clearly the transgression of desolation involves transgressing the law of God. If we use the definition of perpetual instead of daily, does that lead us to the Sabbath? Yes it does!

Exo 31:16 Wherefore the children of Israel shall keep the sabbath, to observe the sabbath throughout their generations, for a perpetual covenant.
Exo 31:17 It is a sign between me and the children of Israel for ever: for in six days the LORD made heaven and earth, and on the seventh day he rested, and was refreshed.

The word tamid in Daniel 8, 11, and 12 should be translated as perpetual, referring to the perpetual covenant of the Sabbath commandment. The transgression which replaces the perpetual covenant and results in desolation is also mentioned in Isaiah.

Isa 24:1 Behold, the LORD maketh the earth empty, and maketh it waste, and turneth it upside down, and scattereth abroad the inhabitants thereof.
Isa 24:2 And it shall be, as with the people, so with the priest; as with the servant, so with his master; as with the maid, so with her mistress; as with the buyer, so with the seller; as with the lender, so with the borrower; as with the taker of usury, so with the giver of usury to him.
Isa 24:3 The land shall be utterly emptied, and utterly spoiled: for the LORD hath spoken this word.
Isa 24:4 The earth mourneth and fadeth away, the world languisheth and fadeth away, the haughty people of the earth do languish.
Isa 24:5 The earth also is defiled under the inhabitants thereof; because they have transgressed the laws, changed the ordinance, broken the everlasting covenant.
Isa 24:6 Therefore hath the curse devoured the earth, and they that dwell therein are desolate: therefore the inhabitants of the earth are burned, and few men left.

So the mark of the beast, the little horn, is indeed found in Daniel 8, it is the transgression of desolation. It is also the abomination that maketh desolate in Daniel 11:31 and Daniel 12:11 and the abomination of desolation in Matthew 24:15 and Mark 13:14.


If we also now apply the refined definitions of “times and laws” of Dan 7:25 provided to us by Revelation 12:17, 14:7 and 19:10, and read them into Isaiah 8, notice the result:

Isa 8:16 Bind up the testimony (of Jesus, the spirit of prophecy), seal the law (7th day Sabbath) among my disciples.

Isa 8:20 To the law (7th day Sabbath) and to the testimony (2300 day prophecy / pre-advent judgment): if they speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in them.

In conjunction with Exodus 31:16-17, this clearly confirms the 7th day Sabbath to be the sign or seal of God, the perpetual covenant of Daniel 8.

In the very time in which we live, the Lord has called His people and has given them a message to bear. He has called them to expose the wickedness of the man of sin who has made the Sunday law a distinctive power, who has thought to change times and laws, and to oppress the people of God who stand firmly to honor Him by keeping the only true Sabbath, the Sabbath of creation, as holy unto the Lord. He has called them to bear the sign of God, to exalt the Lord in keeping holy His law; for it is a transcript of His character. No part of the law of God and their covenant obligation to keep that law holy is to lose its binding claims upon all the world. Those who have had the light upon keeping the law of Jehovah are to stand firmly in the faith, and to make that light shine forth in clear, distinct rays. {18MR 33.1}

What does the word Vatican mean?


According to the Catholic Encyclopedia online:

“The territory on the right bank of the Tiber between Monte Mario and Gianicolo (Janiculum) was known to antiquity as the Ager Vaticanus, and, owing to its marshy character, the low-lying portion of this district enjoyed an ill repute. The origin of the name Vaticanus is uncertain; some claim that the name comes from a vanished Etruscan town called Vaticum.” [Ager in Latin means land]

However, according to a Vatican curator:

“The Vatican Hill takes it name from the Latin word Vaticanus, a vaticiniis ferendis, in allusion to the oracles, or Vaticinia, which were anciently delivered here.”

Sources: Compendious Description of the Museums of Ancient Sculpture, Greek and Roman, in the Vatican Palace, by Cav. H. J. Massi, First Curator of the Vatican Museums and Galleries, Paleographer and Professor of the Italian and French Languages, Rome, Third Edition, 1889,  Title page page 7.

Compendious Description of the Museums of Ancient Sculpture, Greek and Roman, in the Vatican Palace, by Cav. H. J. Massi, First Curator of the Vatican Museums and Galleries, Paleographer and Professor of Languages, Rome, Sixth Edition, 1901,  Title page page 5.

Aulus Gellius, writing in the 2nd century, also said the word Vatican was derived from the word vaticinia, or prophecies, in his Attic Nights, book 16, chapter 17.

Source: The Attic Nights of Aulus Gellius, translated into English by the Rev. William Beloe, Volume III, London, 1795, Title pagepage 247page 248.

Research the word Vatican in many Latin – English / English – Latin dictionaries, or encyclopedias, and you will likely find that Vatican City and St. Peter’s Basilica of the Roman Catholic Church were built upon what was called in Latin vaticanus mons or vaticanus collis. The words mons and collis mean hill or mountain. You will also find in the dictionaries that the words vatic / vates / vatis all relate to prophecy as shown here:

vatic.gif (6966 bytes)

Source: The New College Latin and English Dictionary, revised and enlarged, by John C. Traupman, Ph.D., published and copyrighted by Bantam Books, 1995, ISBN 0-553-57301-2, page 437.

Note that there are five words listed above containing vatic, and all relate to prophecy. The word vatic and its association to prophecy can even be found in a standard English dictionary:


Source:  Webster’s II New Riverside Dictionary, Home and Office Edition, published in 1995 by Longmeadow Press, Copyright 1988 by Houghton Mifflin Company, ISBN 0-681-20227-0, page 458.

Merriam-Webster Dictionary Online

And here is what you would find in a Latin – English dictionary for the suffix –anus:

anus.gif (2654 bytes)

Source: The New College Latin and English Dictionary, revised and enlarged, by John C. Traupman, Ph.D., published and copyrighted by Bantam Books, 1995,   ISBN 0-553-57301-2,  page 60.

Vaticanus then is a combination of Vatic + anus, just as Romanus is a combination of Rome + anus. Therefore, vaticanus collis or vaticanus mons mean “the prophetic hill or mountain”, which can be rephrased as the hill or mountain of prophecy. The word Vatican is just a shortened form of the word Vaticanus, just like Claudian is a shortened form of Claudianus, as shown above. This association of the Vatican with prophecy is even confirmed by this recent Catholic book:

Where does the word “Vatican” come from and what does it mean?

The word derives from the Latin vates, which means “tellers of the future.” This name was the name given to a hillside on the west bank of the Tiber River in Rome because daily lineups of fortunetellers used to hawk their “wares” there to passersby on the street. In the fourteenth century, when the papacy was returned to Rome from Avignon (France), the present-day Vatican became the residence of the popes, and the word came to refer to the enclave in the middle of Rome that had become the seat of the Roman Catholic Church.

Source: Incredible Book of Vatican Facts and Papal Curiosities, by Nino Lo Bello, Liguori Publications, Copyright 1998, ISBN 0-7648-0171-6, page 135.

Here is a verse from the Latin Vulgate Bible and King James as an example of the use of vatic (emphasis is mine):

12 et intellexi quod Deus non misisset eum sed quasi vaticinans locutus esset ad me et Tobia et Sanaballat conduxissent eum

Neh 6:12 And, lo, I perceived that God had not sent him; but that he pronounced this prophecy against me: for Tobiah and Sanballat had hired him.

Now, note the following coins minted in Vatican City from 1955 to 1965 under three Popes. The inscription on the reverse side of the coin reads in Italian “CITTÁ DEL VATICANO”, which as we can now see, means City of Prophecy.


Pope Pius the 12th – 1958 

Pope John the 23rd – 1959  

Pope Paul the 6th – 1963 

To get a closer look at a coin, click on it.

Rev 17:18 And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.

There is also a woman on the reverse side, and at her feet is her title, FIDES, which means faith. This woman is symbolic of the Roman Catholic faith, or Roman Catholic Church.

Here is a statue of a woman portraying the same symbolism of the Catholic Church or Catholic faith that decorates the monument to Pope Clement IX (1667-69), which was placed to the right side of the nave entrance of the basilica Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome in 1671.Interestingly, the word anus in Latin also means “old woman”, so Vaticanus is a combination two words that also result in The Old Woman of Prophecy, this woman being symbolic of the Catholic Church.

From a photo by
Gabinetto Fotographico Nazionale

It is important to note that in the symbolic woman’s hand, is a cup, as illustrated above on the coins, and just barely visible with the statue above and at right. The depiction of the Catholic faith (FIDES) as a woman holding a cup appears to be quite common, and yet is apparently unique to the Catholic Church.There is a remarkable and direct correlation to these depictions of the Catholic faith as a woman, and the woman described in Revelation 17, as will be demonstrated.


A Woman In Prophecy Symbolizes A Church

In scripture a woman is used symbolically to depict the church, and the faithful church of saints is described as the bride of Christ:

2 Cor 11:2 For I am jealous over you with godly jealousy: for I have espoused you to one husband, that I may present you as a chaste virgin to Christ.

Rev 19:7 Let us be glad and rejoice, and give honour to him: for the marriage of the Lamb is come, and his wife hath made herself ready.
Rev 19:8 And to her was granted that she should be arrayed in fine linen, clean and white: for the fine linen is the righteousness of saints.

And a godly woman’s appearance is clearly described in scripture:

1 Tim 2:9 In like manner also, that women adorn themselves in modest apparel, with shamefacedness and sobriety; not with broided hair, or gold, or pearls, or costly array;
1 Tim 2:10 But (which becometh women professing godliness) with good works.

1 Pet 3:3 Whose adorning let it not be that outward adorning of plaiting the hair, and of wearing of gold, or of putting on of apparel;
1 Pet 3:4 But let it be the hidden man of the heart, in that which is not corruptible, even the ornament of a meek and quiet spirit, which is in the sight of God of great price.
1 Pet 3:5 For after this manner in the old time the holy women also, who trusted in God, adorned themselves,

Rev 12:1 And there appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman clothed with the sun, and the moon under her feet, and upon her head a crown of twelve stars:
Rev 12:2 And she being with child cried, travailing in birth, and pained to be delivered.

The symbol of the sun:

Mal 4:2 But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness [Christ] arise with healing in his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall.

Psa 119:172 My tongue shall speak of thy word: for all thy commandments are righteousness.

The symbol of the moon:

Psa 89:37 It shall be established for ever as the moon, and as a faithful witness [testimony] in heaven.

John 5:39 Search the scriptures; for in them ye think ye have eternal life: and they are they which testify of me.

The symbol of the stars:

Rev 1:20 The mystery of the seven stars which thou sawest in my right hand, and the seven golden candlesticks. The seven stars are the angels [messengers] of the seven churches: and the seven candlesticks which thou sawest are the seven churches.

Dan 12:3 And they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament; and they that turn many to righteousness as the stars for ever and ever.

So the woman of Revelation 12, the true church, is clothed with the righteousness of Christ, keeping the commandments of God, standing as a faithful witness upon the word of God, the scriptures, crowned with the gospel message of the 12 apostles, the new covenant representation of the twelve tribes of Israel.

Rev 12:17 And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.

The Apostate Church

However, the woman described in Revelation 17 represents an apostate church, the direct opposite of the true and faithful church represented by the woman described in Revelation 12. While the Roman Catholic Church readily and willingly identifies itself as the woman of Revelation 12, the bride of Christ, it is precisely and graphically described in Revelation 17, as we shall see.

Rev 17:1 … Come hither; I will show unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:
Rev 17:2 With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.
Church and State

Rev 17:3 So he carried me away in the spirit into the wilderness: and I saw a woman sit upon a scarlet coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy, having seven heads and ten horns.

The woman of Revelation 17 rides a symbolic beast. A beast in scripture is symbolic of an empire or state. Examples of this are explained in Daniel 7, where a lion represented Babylon, a bear represented Medo-Persia, and a leopard represented Greece. Therefore, the woman of Revelation 17 riding a beast is symbolic of the combining of the ecclesiastical power of church (the woman) and political power of the state (the beast), i.e., a church in control of state power.

Rev 17:18 And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.

The Vatican City is the seat of the Roman Catholic Church, and since the Lateran Concordat of 1929 it is also an independent country, the epitome of Church and State combined. The full formal diplomatic title in Italian is STATO DELLA CITTÁ DEL VATICANO, as shown on the coin below from the pontificate of Pope Pius the 12th, which means:

The City-State of Prophecy
Vatican 2 Lira coin minted in 1940

A woman (church) dressed in scarlet and purple.

Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:

Here you see the Pope wearing scarlet and an Archbishop wearing reddish-purple.

Photo by Arturo Mari.
Pope John Paul II celebrated mass in the Basilica of the Resurrection in Jerusalem on Sunday, March 26th 2000, dressed in a purple Lenten robe and a miter trimmed with scarlet red. For more photos, see this page at the Franciscan Cyberspot.

On the12th of March 2000, during the Papal Apology Mass, the pope and other members of the Roman Catholic priesthood wore various shades of violet/purple because it also occurred during the Catholic festival of Lent, when the penitential color of purple is traditionally worn.

© 2000 by CTV
Cardinal Edward Cassidy, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity, also participated in the unprecedented event at the Vatican, during which Pope John Paul II asked for forgiveness for the various persecution sins committed by Roman Catholics over the last two millennium. Cardinal Cassidy and other prominent Cardinals wore both prophesied colors of scarlet and purple!
© 2000 by CTV

Below are photos from the October 31st, 1999 signing of the Joint Declaration on Justification by Faith between the Roman Catholic and Lutheran World Federation (LWF) Churches in Augsburg Germany. The Roman Catholics were boldly wearing the prophesied colors of scarlet and purple.

Dressed in scarlet red is Cardinal Edward Cassidy, president of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. On the right wearing purple is Bishop Walter Kasper, secretary, Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity. Seated on the left in black is Rev. Christian Krause, the Lutheran World Federation president.
Image by Frank Imhoff,
courtesy ELCA News and Information
In this photo of the audience at the ceremony in Augsburg, the Catholic cardinals are wearing scarlet red and the Catholic bishops are wearing purple. Cardinal Cassidy is in the center with Rev. Krause seated to his left (right in the photo).
Image by Frank Imhoff,
courtesy ELCA News and Information


Priests of the Catholic Church regularly wear red vestments on Good Friday, Palm Sunday, Pentecost, Birthday Feasts of the Apostles and Evangelists, and the Feasts of Martyrs. Purple vestments are worn on Advent, Lent, and at Funerals, although other colors are optional on some of those days. Other approved colors are white, green, black and rose and gold. A distinctive shade of bright orange-red designated officially by the Church as “scarlet” is frequently worn by Cardinals of the Catholic Church. Here you see Archbishops and Bishops in purples and Cardinals in scarlet.
Photo by Arturo Mari.

A traditional “Red Mass” is also held for Supreme Court Justices in the United States, on the Sunday prior to the opening of the Supreme Court session. The Red Mass is an English tradition that was instituted about 1310 during the reign of King Edward II.

Red Mass – Ordinarily this relates to the color of the vestment used on the occasion of the Votive Mass in honor of the Holy Spirit, celebrated at the opening of councils, deliberative groups, schools, and such similar occasions when guidance is invoked. Frequently, at the beginning of a judicial year, such as a Mass is attended by judges and court officials for any civil court or legislative assembly with the intention that they might exercise equity and prudence while fulfilling their official capacities.

Source: Dictionary of the Liturgy, by Jovian P. Lang, OFM, copyright 1989 by Catholic Book Publishing Co., N.Y., ISBN 0-89942-273-X, page 541.

The Harlot Church’s Missing Color

The garments of the high priest of Israel, according to the Bible, contained specific colors:

Exo 28:3 And thou shalt speak unto all that are wise hearted, whom I have filled with the spirit of wisdom, that they may make Aaron’s garments to consecrate him, that he may minister unto me in the priest’s office.
Exo 28:4 And these are the garments which they shall make; a breastplate, and an ephod, and a robe, and a broidered coat, a mitre, and a girdle: and they shall make holy garments for Aaron thy brother, and his sons, that he may minister unto me in the priest’s office.
Exo 28:5 And they shall take gold, and blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine linen.
Exo 28:6 And they shall make the ephod of gold, of blue, and of purple, of scarlet, and fine twined linen, with cunning work.
Exo 28:7 It shall have the two shoulder pieces thereof joined at the two edges thereof; and so it shall be joined together.
Exo 28:8 And the curious girdle of the ephod, which is upon it, shall be of the same, according to the work thereof; even of gold, of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.

Exo 28:31 And thou shalt make the robe of the ephod all of blue.

Exo 39:1 And of the blue, and purple, and scarlet, they made cloths of service, to do service in the holy place, and made the holy garments for Aaron; as the LORD commanded Moses.
Exo 39:2 And he made the ephod of gold, blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen.

In comparison, the garments of the high priest include the color blue, which is notably absent in the description of the woman of Revelation 17.:

Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:

The Bible even tells us the spiritual meaning of the color blue:

Num 15:38 Speak unto the children of Israel, and bid them that they make them fringes in the borders of their garments throughout their generations, and that they put upon the fringe of the borders a ribband of blue:
Num 15:39 And it shall be unto you for a fringe, that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the LORD, and do them; and that ye seek not after your own heart and your own eyes, after which ye use to go a whoring:
Num 15:40 That ye may remember, and do all my commandments, and be holy unto your God.

Deu 22:12 Thou shalt make thee fringes upon the four quarters of thy vesture, wherewith thou coverest thyself.

In Numbers 15, the context for the blue tassels or ribbands is intentional sinning (Num 15:30-31) and breaking the sabbath commandment (Num 15:32-36). Note that there is no mention of repentance by the man who was gathering sticks, he was breaking the sabbath intentionally in open defiance of the law. For that he was put to death.

This practice of blue in tassels survives today in the Jewish prayer shawl, known as a tallit. The tassel with the ribband of blue on the four corners of the tallit is called a tzitzit, and one is shown above.

All blue cloth was also specified to be used to cover the furniture and utensils of the sanctuary of Moses when it was disassembled for transport to a new location (Num 4:5-12).

Why blue? It is understood that the tablets of the Ten Commandments were cut from the clear blue sapphire seen on mount Sinai (Exo 24:10), which makes up the very throne of God (Eze 1:26, 10:1). So, the Ark of the Covenant in the most holy apartment of the sanctuary, the throne of God’s presence (the Shekinah glory), contained the blue sapphire tablets of the Ten Commandments.

Healing in his Wings

Mal 4:2 But unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in his wings; and ye shall go forth, and grow up as calves of the stall.

Malachi 4:2 is a messianic prophecy, it is speaking of Jesus Christ. So what does healing in his wings mean? The word translated “wings” is H3671:

H3671. kanaph, kaw-nawf’; from H3670; an edge or extremity; spec. (of a bird or army) a wing, (of a garment or bed-clothing) a flap, (of the earth) a quarter, (of a building) a pinnacle:– + bird, border, corner, end, feather [-ed], X flying, + (one an-) other, overspreading, X quarters, skirt, X sort, uttermost part, wing ([-ed]).

So Malachi was really saying that the Messiah would have healing in the edge or fringe of His garment. This  was what was understood by the people of Israel. How do we know that?

Mat 14:35 And when the men of that place had knowledge of him [Jesus], they sent out into all that country round about, and brought unto him all that were diseased;
Mat 14:36 And besought him that they might only touch the hem of his garment: and as many as touched were made perfectly whole.

Mat 9:20 And, behold, a woman, which was diseased with an issue of blood twelve years, came behind him, and touched the hem of his garment:
Mat 9:21 For she said within herself, If I may but touch his garment, I shall be whole.
Mat 9:22 But Jesus turned him about, and when he saw her, he said, Daughter, be of good comfort; thy faith hath made thee whole. And the woman was made whole from that hour.

See also Mark 5:25-34 and Luke 8:43-48.

The fringe or tassel of Christ’s garment undoubtedly included the sapphire blue ribband as directed in Numbers 15:38-39 as mentioned above, that symbolized the commandments of God. That is why the woman sought so earnestly to touch that hem or fringe. She knew Malachi’s prophecy, and in faith she made her way through the crowd to claim that healing.

So regarding the whoring harlot church, though she claims to be God’s representative on earth, the missing color blue in her description indicates that she defiantly disregards and transgresses the law of God. One of the characteristics of the antichrist power is lawlessness:

[NIV] 2 Th 2:3 Don’t let anyone deceive you in any way, for that day will not come until the rebellion occurs and the man of lawlessness is revealed, the man doomed to destruction.

[NIV] 2 Th 2:7 For the secret power of lawlessness is already at work; but the one who now holds it back will continue to do so till he is taken out of the way.

And, note what the antichrist little horn power tries to change:

Dan 7:25 And he [little horn] shall speak great words against the most High, and shall wear out the saints of the most High, and think to change times and laws [of the most High]: and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and the dividing of time.

The only one of the ten commandments of God that deals with time is the sabbath commandment (Exo. 20:8-11), which the Catholic Church claims to have changed, from Saturday the seventh day, to Sunday, the first day of the week:

2175    Sunday is expressly distinguished from the sabbath which it follows chronologically every week; for Christians its ceremonial observance replaces that of the sabbath.

Source: Catechism of the Catholic Church, published by Liguori Publications, English translation copyright 1994 by the United States Catholic Conference, Inc.–Libreria Editrice Vaticana, bearing the Imprimi Potest of Joseph Cardinal Ratzinger, page 524.

See The Seal of God and the Mark of the Beast and Sunday is not the Sabbath!

For a striking contrast, note how the true church, symbolized by the woman of Revelation 12, is described:

Rev 12:17 And the dragon was wroth with the woman, and went to make war with the remnant of her seed, which keep the commandments of God, and have the testimony of Jesus Christ.


Lev 21:9 And the daughter of any priest, if she profane herself by playing the whore, she profaneth her father: she shall be burnt with fire.

Rev 17:16 And the ten horns which thou sawest upon the beast, these shall hate the whore, and shall make her desolate and naked, and shall eat her flesh, and burn her with fire.

The scriptures give us several examples of blasphemy:

Mark 2:5 When Jesus saw their faith, he said unto the sick of the palsy, Son, thy sins be forgiven thee.
Mark 2:6 But there were certain of the scribes sitting there, and reasoning in their hearts,
Mark 2:7 Why doth this man thus speak blasphemies? who can forgive sins but God only?

John 10:32 Jesus answered them, Many good works have I showed you from my Father; for which of those works do ye stone me?
John 10:33 The Jews answered him, saying, For a good work we stone thee not; but for blasphemy; and because that thou, being a man, makest thyself God.

Rev 2:9  I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty, (but thou art rich) and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not, but are the synagogue of Satan.

So, a man falsely claiming the power to forgive the sins of men, a man falsely claiming to be God on earth, and men falsely claiming to be the true church of God are all clearly defined as blasphemy. Note the following:

Priests and bishops are, as it were, the interpreters and heralds of God, commissioned in his name to teach mankind the” law of God, and the precepts of a Christian life—they are the representatives of God upon earth. Impossible, therefore, to conceive a more exalted dignity, or functions more sacred. Justly, therefore, are they called not only angels,’ but gods.3 holding, as they do, the place and power and authority of God on earth. But the priesthood, at all times an elevated office, transcends in the New Law all others in dignity. The power of consecrating and offering the body and blood of our Lord and of remitting sin, with which the priesthood of the New Law is invested, is such as cannot be comprehended by the human mind, still less is it equalled by, or assimilated to, any thing on earth.

Source: The Catechism of the Council of Trent (The Roman Catechism), Sacrament of Holy Orders, Dignity of this Sacrament.

Power of Consecrating

The third great power of the priestly office is the climax of all. It is the power of consecrating. “No act is greater,” says saint Thomas, “than the consecration of the body of Christ.” In this essential phase of the sacred ministry, the power of the priest is not surpassed by that of the bishop, the archbishop, the cardinal or the pope. Indeed it is equal to that of Jesus Christ. For in this role the priest speaks with the voice and the authority of God Himself.

When the priest pronounces the tremendous words of consecration, he reaches up into the heaven, brings Christ down from His throne, and places Him upon our altar to be offered up again as the victim for the sins of man. It is a power greater than that of monarchs and emperors. It is greater than that of saints and angels, greater than that of Seraphim and Cherubim. Indeed, it is greater than the power of the Virgin Mary. While the blessed virgin was the human agency by which Christ became incarnate a single time, the priest brings Christ down from heaven, and renders Him present on our altar as the eternal victim for the sins of man-not once, but, a thousand times! The priest speaks and lo! Christ the eternal and omnipotent God, bows His head in humble obedience to the priest’s command.

[pg.271] Of what sublime dignity is the office of the Christian priest who is thus privileged to act as the ambassador and the vicegerent of Christ on earth. He continues the essential ministry of Christ – he teaches the faithful with the authority of Christ, he offers up again the same sacrifice of adoration and atonement which Christ offered on Calvary. No wonder that the name which spiritual writers are especially fond of applying to the priest is that of “alter Christus.” For the priest is and should be another Christ.

Source: Faith of Millions, by Reverend John A. O’brien, Copyright 1938, published by Our Sunday Visitor, Huntington Indiana, page 270, 271.

Thus the priest may, in a certain manner, be called the creator of his Creator, …

“The power of the priest,” says St. Bernadine of Sienna, “is the power of the divine person; for the transubstantiation of the bread requires as much power as the creation of the world.”

As the Word of God created heaven and earth, so, says St. Jerome, the words of the priest create Jesus Christ.

Source: The Dignity and Duties of the Priest or Selva, by St. Alphonsus de Liguori, translated from the Italian, edited by Eugene Grimm, copyright 1927 by Very Rev. James Barron, C.SS.R, pgs. 32, 33.

“In this moment, the priest quite literally becomes Christ Himself: his own personality is blotted out; it is absorbed in that of the everlasting priest who is, at one time, the offered victim and the supreme officiant.”

Source: This is The Mass, Henri Daniel-Rops, Fulton J. Sheen, Yousuf Karsh, trans. with annotations by Alastair Guinan, New York: Hawthorn Books, Inc., 1965. First ed. 1958, p. 118. Nihil Obstat: Robert E. Hunt, S.T. D., Censor Librorum. Imprimatur: Thomas A. Boland, S.T.D. Archbishop of Newark.

Decked with Gold and Precious Stones and Pearls

Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:

At right is a jewel encrusted gold and silver triple-tiara of Pope Pius IX, one of as many a dozen such tri-regno crowns in the Vatican treasury. For more photos of papal tiaras, see Papal Claims to Authority.

The Cup of Doctrinal Fornication
The Wine of Babylon is the Precept of Men

Pope John Paul II holding a chalice of Pope Pius IX.
© by CTV
Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:

Five hundred diamonds encrust this golden chalice, a gift of Sultan Abdul Medji for Pope Pius IX’s election, and first used by Pius IX on December 8th, 1854, at the Mass proclaiming the Immaculate Conception of Mary.

Pope John Paul II, dressed in purple, holds a golden cup during the Papal Apology Mass on March 12th, 2000. Some Cardinals in attendance wore both prophetic colors of purple and scarlet (see above).
© 2000 by CTV

Jer 51:6 Flee out of the midst of Babylon, and deliver every man his soul: be not cut off in her iniquity; for this is the time of the LORD’S vengeance; he will render unto her a recompense.
Jer 51:7 Babylon hath been a golden cup in the LORD’S hand, that made all the earth drunken: the nations have drunken of her wine; therefore the nations are mad.

Isa 28:7 But they also have erred through wine, and through strong drink are out of the way; the priest and the prophet have erred through strong drink, they are swallowed up of wine, they are out of the way through strong drink; they err in vision, they stumble in judgment.
Isa 28:8 For all tables are full of vomit and filthiness, so that there is no place clean.
Isa 28:9 Whom shall he teach knowledge? and whom shall he make to understand doctrine?

Isa 29:9 Stay yourselves, and wonder; cry ye out, and cry: they are drunken, but not with wine; they stagger, but not with strong drink.
Isa 29:10 For the LORD hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes: the prophets and your rulers, the seers hath he covered.
Isa 29:11 And the vision of all is become unto you as the words of a book that is sealed, which men deliver to one that is learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I cannot; for it is sealed:
Isa 29:12 And the book is delivered to him that is not learned, saying, Read this, I pray thee: and he saith, I am not learned.
Isa 29:13 Wherefore the Lord said, Forasmuch as this people draw near me with their mouth, and with their lips do honour me, but have removed their heart far from me, and their fear toward me is taught by the precept of men:
Isa 29:14 Therefore, behold, I will proceed to do a marvellous work among this people, even a marvellous work and a wonder: for the wisdom of their wise men shall perish, and the understanding of their prudent men shall be hid.

Mat 15:8 This people draweth nigh unto me with their mouth, and honoureth me with their lips; but their heart is far from me.
Mat 15:9 But in vain they do worship me, teaching for doctrines the commandments of men.

Rev 18:2 And he cried mightily with a strong voice, saying, Babylon the great is fallen, is fallen, and is become the habitation of devils, and the hold of every foul spirit, and a cage of every unclean and hateful bird.
Rev 18:3 For all nations have drunk of the wine of the wrath of her fornication, and the kings of the earth have committed fornication with her, and the merchants of the earth are waxed rich through the abundance of her delicacies.
Rev 18:4 And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that ye be not partakers of her sins, and that ye receive not of her plagues.
Rev 18:5 For her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities.
Rev 18:6 Reward her even as she rewarded you, and double unto her double according to her works: in the cup which she hath filled fill to her double.

The cup illustrated on the three Vatican coins at the top of this article, and in the hand of the other symbolic depictions of FIDES, is the golden cup of wine of the Mass. Above it is the host or wafer of the Eucharist, which resembles a sunburst.

Below are similar symbols of the Eucharist as seen on the 100 Lire coins:

From the video “666 and the Mark” by James Arrabito,
Copyright © LLT Productions – Used by Permission

Above is a papal medal minted by Pius XI in 1929 to commemorate both the Lateran Treaty, which restored Papal sovereignty and made Vatican City an independent state, and the 50th jubilee of his priesthood. The sunburst wafer of the Eucharist appears in the sky above the Lateran and St. Peter’s basilicas, over the cup of the Mass.

Here is a photo of the same symbology of the cup and wafer host of the Catholic mass, used in the window of the church  Dominus Flevit on the Mount of Olives, overlooking the temple mount of Jerusalem, online at Christus Rex. Note the wavy sunburst pattern around the cup.

At left is FIDES, the Catholic faith, holding the golden cup of the Mass, portrayed by Lorenzo Sabbatini and his assistants from 1573 -1576 on the vault of the First Sala dei Foconi, the Vatican.

Rev 17:2 With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication. …
Rev 17:4 And the woman was arrayed in purple and scarlet colour, and decked with gold and precious stones and pearls, having a golden cup in her hand full of abominations and filthiness of her fornication:The golden cup of wine in the hand of the woman of Revelation 17 is full of abominations and the filthiness of her fornication, which represent apostate doctrine, stupefying corrupted dogma, the commandments (precepts) of men, imposed through coercion and persecution by civil powers (fornication), with which she has made all the nations to become drunken.

From a photo by G. Vasari.
The Catholic faith is again represented in these paintings as a woman holding a golden cup of wine with the round wafer of the Eucharist.
Ceiling panel painting of FIDES by Francesco Podesti,
Immaculate Conception room of the Borgia Tower, the Vatican.
From a photo by Spectrum Colour Library.
Chief among the apostate Catholic doctrines is that of transubstantiation, where the priest claims to turn bread and wine into the actual body and blood of Jesus Christ, who is allegedly re-presented at every mass as a continuing sacrifice, worshipped as though it were God Himself, and then consumed by the congregation. Eating the flesh of another human being is defined as cannibalism. In truth, the Lord’s supper is merely a symbolic memorial, and not a sacrifice. At left is a painting of FIDES, a detail from The Theological Virtues, painted from 1596 -1600 by Cherubino Alberti and Baldassare Croce, in the Sala Clementina, the Vatican.
From a photo by G. Vasari.
This oil on canvas of The Triumph of Faith which is in the Vatican collection, is by Gaetano Gandolfi and was painted about 1774. It is the preparatory work for the ceiling of a chapel in Bologna, and was given to Pope Pius X by the Sacra Congregazione di Propaganda Fide, otherwise known as the office of the Inquisition.
From a photo by Pianeta Immagine.
At left is FIDES as portrayed over the pulpit of the Benedictine Melk Monastery on the Danube in Austria, built in the early 18th century. In FIDES’ left hand is the golden cup (in front of the cross), and behind her right shoulder is the pagan sunburst image.
From a photo by Artephot, Paris (Nimatallah).
At right is a detail of FIDES from The Battle of Lepanto by Giorgio Vasari and assistants from 1572-73, in the Sala Regia, the Vatican.
From a photo by M. Sarre.
This depiction of Fides by Donatello and Michelozzo dates to about 1435, and is carved on the base of the funeral monument of AntiPope John XXIII (1410-1415), which is in the Pietra serena Baptistry in Florence.
On the right is a tempera and oil on wood by Raphael, a part of the predella of the Baglioni Altarpiece, which dates to about 1507.
From a photo by M. Sarre.

Above is a papal medal of Pope Clemens VIII marking the 13th year of his reign in 1602, and the reverse side is inscribed Unus Deus – Una Fides (One God – One Faith)

This is the title page of a Roman Catholic Missal, published in 1779, which depicts a cup-holding FIDES. The Missal “contains the prayers said by the priest at the altar as well as all that is officially read or sung in connection with the offering of the holy Sacrifice of the Mass throughout the ecclesiastical year”, according to the Catholic Encyclopedia.Can it be any plainer that the Catholic Church has indeed adopted the symbology of a woman holding a golden cup, precisely as described, and in fulfillment of the prophecy of Revelation 17?

Indeed, and it would seem that no other Christian denomination but the Catholic Church has depicted itself in this manner.

This medal of Pope Innocent XI was struck in 1680, the 4th year of his reign. On the reverse side is FIDES representing the Catholic Church. Again she is holding the golden cup of the Mass and a cross. The inscription is from the Latin Vulgate Bible, Ecclesiasticus 40:12, and means fidelity shall stand for ever.
Papal Rome’s symbolism of FIDES apparently originated with ancient Pagan Rome. On the left is a strikingly similar Roman Denarius, with FIDES holding military standards, a common theme on coins from ancient Rome, depicting a military faithful to the reigning emperor.

Additional images online

The  tomb of Pope Innocent VIII also has an image of FIDES with cup raised, in the left top corner of the tomb.

Here is another sculpture of FIDES, titled  The Triumph of Faith over Idolatry by Théodon Jean Baptiste, in Rome’s Chiesa del Gesù, the Jesuit Church of Rome. This sculpture is on the left side of the tomb of Ignatius Loyola, the founder of the Jesuits.

In New Orleans, the  Cathedral of St. Louis has a statue of Fides holding the golden cup above the altar.

Note the statue of The Mother of the Eucharist in which Mary holds the golden cup.

In Venice,  St. Mark’s Basilica has a statue of Fides holding the golden cup on its west facade.

In Rome, in the church of Santa Maria Maddalena, Fides holding the golden cup is to the left of the organ pipes.

Cup holding statue of Ste Madeleine in the church of Rennes-le-Chateau, France.

The earliest image of a cup-holding  FIDES that I have found is on the gildedbronze doorson the south side of the Baptistery in Florence Italy, which date from the early 14th century.

See also The Red Dragon and Rome.

The “Mother” Church

The woman of Revelation 17 is the mother church, with apostate daughters:


Only the Roman Catholic Church claims to be the “mother” Christian church:

The term Mother Church, however, as applied to Rome, has a special significance as indicating its headship of all churches.

Source: The Catholic Encyclopedia, copyright 1909, 1913, Volume 6, entry on Filial Church (daughter church), pg. 72.

And in this way the Church is increasingly a Mother, a Mother of many, many children: she becomes a Mother, ever more fully a Mother, a Mother who gives us faith, a Mother who gives us our identity. But Christian identity is not an identity card. Christian identity means being a member of the Church, since all these people belonged to the Church, to Mother Church, for apart from the Church it is not possible to find Jesus. The great Paul VI said: it is an absurd dichotomy to wish to live with Jesus but without the Church, to follow Jesus but without the Church, to love Jesus but without the Church (cf. Evangelii Nuntiandi, 16). And that Mother Church who gives us Jesus also gives us an identity which is not simply a rubber stamp: it is membership. Identity means membership, belonging. Belonging to the Church: this is beautiful!  Pope Francis’ homily during Mass with the Cardinals present in Rome at the Pauline Chapel for the Feast of Saint George, April 23, 2013.

10. … “It must always be clear, when the expression sister churches is used in this proper sense that the one, holy, catholic and apostolic universal church is not sister but mother of all the particular churches.”

Source: Note on the Expression Sister Churches by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger and Archbishop Tarcisio Bertone, SDB, June 30, 2000.

In the recent document Memory and Reconciliation, where the Roman Catholic Church discusses its asking forgiveness for its past sins of persecution, section 3.4 specifically addresses “The Motherhood of the Church”:

The conviction that the Church can make herself responsible for the sin of her children by virtue of the solidarity that exists among them through time and space because of their incorporation into Christ and the work of the Holy Spirit, is expressed in a particularly effective way in the idea of “Mother Church” (“Mater Ecclesia”), …


2. … in every land where the Catholic religion flourishes the Roman Church, mother and mistress of all Churches, is duly reverenced, as it should be, with one mind and heart.


Furthermore, to check unbridled spirits, it [The Council of Trent] decrees that no one relying on his own judgment shall, in matters of faith and morals pertaining to the edification of Christian doctrine, distorting the Holy Scriptures in accordance with his own conceptions, presume to interpret them contrary to that sense which holy mother Church, to whom it belongs to judge of their true sense and interpretation, has held and holds, or even contrary to the unanimous teaching of the Fathers, even though such interpretations should never at any time be published. Those who act contrary to this shall be made known by the ordinaries and punished in accordance with the penalties prescribed by law.

Source: The Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent, English Translation, by Rev. H. J. Schroeder, O.P., Copyright 1941 by B. Herder Book Co., Copyright 1978 by TAN Books and Publishers, Inc., Library of Congress Catalogue Number: 78-66132, ISBN 0-89555-074-1, pages 18-19.

Extract from Pope Gregory VII’s Letter to the Bishop of Metz, 1081 Doeberl, op. cit. iii. 40 sqq. Mirbt, No. 297

The holy fathers, as well in general councils as in their writings and doings, have called the Holy Roman Church the universal mother, accepting and serving with great veneration this institution founded by the divine will, this pledge of a dispensation to the church, this privilege entrusted in the beginning and confirmed to St. Peter the chief of the apostles.

Source: Documents of the Christian Church, Second Edition, selected and Edited by Henry Bettenson, Copyright by Oxford University Press 1963, ISBN 0-19-501293-3, pages 105-106.

I acknowledge the holy Catholic and apostolic Roman Church as the mother and teacher of all churches; and to the Roman Pontiff, the successor of the blessed Peter, chief of the Apostles and vicar of Jesus Christ, I promise and swear true obedience.

Source: The Profession of Faith of the Council of Trent, from the Bull of Pius IV, “Iniunctum nobis,” Nov. 13, 1565, Denzinger, Enchiridion Symbolorum, Thirtieth Edition, translated by Roy J. Deferrari in The Sources of Catholic Dogma, Copyright 1957 by B. Herder Book Co., pg. 303.


This self-proclaimed “mother” church is also Mystery Babylon, the apostate church of Mysteries and the purveyor of Babylonian doctrinal confusion. Note this quote of John Paul II from the Vatican Information Service press release dated 17 September, 1997, (emphasis is mine):

Thanks to greater attention to the mystery of the Church and Mary’s relationship with her, the Virgin has begun to be invoked more frequently as ‘Mother of the Church.’

Mystery is also the term used by the Roman Catholic Church to refer to the Mass, specifically the transubstantiation of the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ. It is a key part of Catholic dogma. These are the words of the priest in Latin or English (emphasis is mine):



The Catholic is also well familiar with many “mysteries” through the recitation of their Hail Marys and the rosary. There are 15 decades of prayer (150 recitations) and during each decade of ten recitations, the Catholic contemplates on one of the “mysteries” of the church, which are as follows:

The Fifteen Mysteries of the Rosary are divided into three groups: the Joyful, the Sorrowful and the Glorious.

  • The 5 Joyful Mysteries
    • The Mystery of the Annunciation
    • The Mystery of the Visitation
    • The Mystery of the Birth of the Lord
    • The Mystery of the Presentation in the Temple
    • The Mystery of Finding Jesus in the Temple
  • The 5 Sorrowful Mysteries
    • The Mystery of the Agony in the Garden
    • The Mystery of the Scourging at the Pillar
    • The Mystery of the Crowning with Thorns
    • The Mystery of Jesus carrying his cross
    • The Mystery of the Crucifixion
  • The 5 Glorious Mysteries
    • The Mystery of the Resurrection
    • The Mystery of the Ascension of Our Lord
    • The Mystery of the Descent of the Holy Spirit
    • The Mystery of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin
    • The Mystery of the Coronation of the Blessed Virgin as Queen of Heaven

The Persecuting Church Drunken on Blood

The woman of Revelation 17 is drunk with the blood of Christian martyrs:

Rev 17:6 And I saw the woman drunken with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs of Jesus: and when I saw her, I wondered with great admiration.



No one is more honest with Protestants than we are, for no one knows them better. There is a great deal of controversy now going on as to the attitude of Protestants towards Catholics holding political office. We have published statements from Baptist and Lutheran bodies, and individual declarations from prominent men in all the Protestant sects. They are all agreed on the question. They would not vote for a Catholic for political office, least of all for the presidency of the United States; and they all give the same or similar reasons. Some say it is because Catholics owe their allegiance to the Pope, and therefore they cannot vote for them. Others declare that all Catholics believe in the union of Church and State; and they under no circumstances would vote to give them political power. Others give other reasons; but one and all declare that they would not vote for Catholics, and mostly all for the two reasons given above.
But is there not a reason behind these two reasons which these Protestants are not willing to admit even to themselves?  Are not these two reasons too theoretical and entirely too academic for the majority of Protestants? They know very little of the meaning and import of allegiance, civil or ecclesiastic; and they do not know what Catholics understand by the term. They have a very vague and indistinct notion of the union of Church and State, and are not aware that such union exists more or less in every state in Christendom. What they really oppose and what they wish to emphasize by their vote is that they do want want to be dragooned into the Catholic Church. They fear that if the Catholic Church should get the upper hand in this country she might induce the state to suppress all heretical worship and compel all to embrace the Catholic faith. And this fear is not irrational, if unfounded. The Church has persecuted. Only a  tyro in church history will deny that. The Apologists in the days of Roman imperial domination inveighed against persecution and with Tertullian deplored that “it was no part of religion to persecute religion.” But after the days of Constantine and under the reign of that first Christian emperor the attitude of Christians underwent a change, and persecution of pagans took place in many places in the empire. A hundred and fifty years after Constantine the Donatists were persecuted and sometimes put to death. Against this extreme measure St. Augustine raised his voice; but he was willing that they should despoiled of their churches and of their goods. Protestants were persecuted in France and and Spain with the full approval of the Church authorities. We have always defended the superventions of the Huguenots and the Spanish Inquisition. Wherever and whenever there is honest  Catholicity there will be a clear distinction drawn between truth and error, and Catholicity and all forms of heresy. When she thinks it good to use physical force the Church will use it. She is no better nor holier than God; and God has used physical force to bring people to embrace the truth. If the Church ever again finds herself in the same circumstances as surrounded her in the days of the Donatists and Huguenots and the Moriscoes it is very probable that she will defend herself with the same weapons she used before. But will those conditions ever return? We hope not for the sake of both persecutor and persecuted. The Protestants of the world fear that the history of persecution will repeat itself. If so it will be brought about by themselves. They fear that they will be forced to embrace the Catholic faith. They never will be as long as they allow Catholics to profess their religion in peace. But if they want war they will be promptly accommodated.
But will the Catholic Church give bond that she will not persecute at all? Will she guarantee absolute freedom and equality of all churches and all faiths? The Catholic Church gives no bonds for her good behavior. She has made mistakes in her policy which she promptly corrected as soon as discovered. She has countenanced violence when more human measures would have been of more avail. Her children and her clergy have often been carried away by popular passion. But she gives no bonds that such things shall not occur again.
Why should the Church be required to furnish security of good behavior? Civil governments have been tyrannical. But we must have civil government. The state has oppressed, and kings have abused their power. But we must have the state to maintain order and protect life and property. So it is with the Church; only more so. We must have the Church. She is the means of grace to a lost world. She is salvation to all mankind. Without the state we have anarchy; without the Church we have spiritual chaos. ― Western Watchman, A Catholic Journal Devoted To The Catholic Interests In The West, Vol. XXXXIII ― No. 35, St. Louis, Mo.  Dec. 24, 1908, Forty Second Year, pg. 8.

A harlot drunken on blood:

Soul of Christ, sanctify me.
Body of Christ, save me.
Blood of Christ, inebriate me.
Water from the side of Christ, wash me.

From the prayer Anima Christi (Soul of Christ).

The prayer Anima Christi can be found on scores of Catholic web sites, and actually asks for drunkenness from the blood of the golden cup. Web site: Anima Christi. The Roman Catholic Church during the “dark ages” is responsible for the persecution deaths of uncounted thousands of Christians who dared to read the Bible, translate the Bible or preach from the Bible or denied the apostate Catholic doctrines or dogma, such as transubstantiation.

That the Roman Catholic church felt compelled to ask for forgiveness for her persecution sins of the past on March 12th, 2000, only serves to further confirm she is the apostate persecuting mother church responsible for the blood of the saints spoken of in Revelation!


The Beast That Was, and Is Not, and Yet Is.

Rev 17:7 And the angel said unto me, Wherefore didst thou marvel? I will tell thee the mystery of the woman, and of the beast that carrieth her, which hath the seven heads and ten horns.
Rev 17:8 The beast that thou sawest was, and is not; and shall ascend out of the bottomless pit, and go into perdition: and they that dwell on the earth shall wonder, whose names were not written in the book of life from the foundation of the world, when they behold the beast that was, and is not, and yet is.

The angel explains to John that there are three phases to the beast:

The Beast that Was  Is Not  And Yet Is
 Papal sovereignty and persecution
1260 years (538-1798)
 Papal sovereignty lost
 Papal sovereignty restored
(1929 – ?)
  • For 1260 years the papacy ruled over Europe, from 538 to 1798. During these dark ages the papacy exercised both political and ecclesiastical power, the woman rode the beast, the beast that was.
  • The papacy lost its political power February 15th, 1798, with the capture of Pius VI by the armies of Napoleon, and it lost the last of the Papal States, on September 20th, 1870 when Italian troops seized the city of Rome, leaving the Pope a virtual prisoner in the Vatican. The Catholic Church had lost her political power and sovereignty, consequently the beast was not.
  • Now, John in chapter 17, sees the harlot in her final phase after she has regained her lost political power (sit on the beast), and the world wonders at her revival. Papal sovereignty was restored February 11th, 1929 with the signing of the Lateran Treaty with Benito Mussolini. And yet the beast is. It has ascended back out of extinction, or the bottomless pit, and proceeds from there to its destruction.

The City of Seven Mountains

The woman of Revelation 17 sits on seven mountains:

Rev 17:9 And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth.

Now, some Roman Catholic apologists will likely try to apply this passage to the city of Jerusalem. However, this verse tells us that the woman of Revelation 17, an apostate persecuting Christian church, sits, or headquarters itself, in a city of seven mountains. No such Christian church has its administrative headquarters in Jerusalem, so it can be easily dismissed as a possibility. It is also worth noting that Revelation was written by John about 95 A.D., some 25 years after Jerusalem had been besieged and completely destroyed by the Romans. This also removes it from consideration in the prophecy, since the Jews did not return to Jerusalem until the 20th century.

John the Revelator further amplifies and defines the harlot as follows:

Rev 17:18 And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.

So we need to look for an apostate persecuting Christian church, that attempts to rule over the kings of the earth from a great city, known for having seven mountains. So let’s consider the great Eternal City of Rome, headquarters of the Roman Catholic Church. Look in most any encyclopedia and you will find that Rome is known as the city of seven hills, or seven mountains. These seven mountains are the Capitoline, Quirinal, Viminal, Esquiline, Cælian (Coelian/Celio), Aventine and Palatine, highlighted in yellow below.

Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) in De Lingua Latina v. 41 wrote:

“Ubi nunc est Roma, erat olim Septimontium, nominatum ab tot montibus, quos postea urbs muris comprehendit.”
“Where now is Rome, was once Septimontium, named by the so many mountains, afterwards enclosed by the city walls.”

Below is a an ancient Roman coin (a Sestertius) in the collection of the British Museum, minted at Tarraco in 71 A.D. during the reign of Vespasian (69-79 A.D.), declaring him to be the Pontifex Maximus (a title assumed by the papacy), which depicts the city of Rome as both the goddess Dea-Roma seated on 7 hills, and a she-wolf suckling Romulus and Remus (just above the R in ROMA).

Pater Patriae CONSVL III
Above photo from The Prophetic Faith of Our Fathers
by Le Roy E. Froom, Volume I, page 160, Copyright 1950
by Review and Herald Publishing Assoc., Washington D.C.

See also: Coins of the Roman Empire in the British Museum, Volume 2, Vespasian To Domitian, by Harold Mattingly and R.A.G. Carson, published in London by the British Museum, 1966, 187 [no. 774, plate 34.5].   Photos of another similar Sestertius.

The Catholic Encyclopedia

It is within the city of Rome, called the city of seven hills, that the entire area of Vatican State proper is now confined. By treaty with the Italian Government certain other properties apart from the Vatican State are considered as territorial parts of the state of Vatican City. Since the founding of the Church there by St. Peter, the city of Rome has been the center of Christendom. The city itself is the diocese of the pope as bishop of Rome.

Source: The Catholic Encyclopedia, edited by Robert C. Broderick, Imprimatur of the Most Reverend William E. Cousins, Archbishop of Milwaukee, Nihil Obstat of the Reverend Richard J. Sklba, published by Thomas Nelson Publishers, copyright 1976, entry on Rome, pg. 529.

Catholic Attempts at Rebuttal

The Roman Catholic apologist will likely respond in a manner similar to this, from Patrick Madrid:

 Most people don’t realize that Vatican City, built squarely on Vatican Hill, isn’t one of the seven hills for which Rome is famous! Unfortunately for the fevered anti-Catholic theories that Dave Hunt and others traffic in, the Catholic Church’s headquarters — Vatican City — sits on the other side of the Tiber river, and not on any of the seven hills. The Tiber formed a natural boundary for the city limits of ancient Rome. The seven hills were on one side, snug inside the city walls. Vatican Hill sat across the river, in sight of the old city, but not technically part of it — so close but yet so far.

Source: Pope Fiction, by Patrick Madrid, (Fiction #7), ISBN 0-9642610-0-6, copyright 1999 Basilica Press, page 103.

It is extremely interesting, to say the least, to see a Roman Catholic apologist, whose church is governed by the Bishop of Rome, trying to extricate his church from that city. Rome, like many European cities, has fortified city walls around its perimeter. The original walls of the city of the Caesars, built between 272 and 279 by Aurelian, did not include the area of the Vatican hill on the west bank of the Tiber, so it is true, as Patrick Madrid says, that Vatican hill was likely considered outside the city limits of the pagan Rome of the Caesars. However, after the sacking of St. Peter’s Basilica and Rome by the Muslim Saracens in 846, the city walls were enlarged as a defensive measure by Pope Leo IV between 848 and 852. He fortified Vatican hill against future attacks by including it within the perimeter of the city walls, which were extended eastward to Hadrian’s tomb (Castel Sant’Angelo). To honor Leo IV, the newly enclosed Vatican was called the Leonine City. The remains of these defensive walls can still be seen today around the Vatican. Most notable is a narrow passageway (Passetto) from the Vatican palace to Castel Sant’Angelo that was added atop the Leonine wall to give the Popes a secret escape route, which is occasionally opened to the public.

“Between 848 and 852 Leo IV surrounded the whole [Vatican] settlement with a wall, which included it within the city boundaries. Until the pontificate of Sixtus V [1585-1590] this section of Rome remained a private papal possession and was entrusted to a special administration. Sixtus, however, placed it under the jurisdiction of the urban authorities as the fourteenth region.”

Source: I. Introduction, of the Catholic Encyclopedia online article on the Vatican

Under ecclesiastical papal Rome, the Vatican has been considered within the walls and city limits of Rome since the middle of the 9th century. So as can be seen, Patrick Madrid in his book Pope Fiction is not telling the whole story to his readers. He is leaving out pertinent facts, since the Vatican has been within the city limits and walls of Rome for well over 1000 years.

Rev 17:9 And here is the mind which hath wisdom. The seven heads are seven mountains, on which the woman sitteth. …
Rev 17:18 And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.

That the papacy of the Roman Catholic Church, the Bishop of Rome, attempts to rule the world from Rome (fulfilling the prophecy) is so obvious on the face of it that it hardly seems to call for any documentation, but we will let a recent pope be heard on this issue:

67. … the hand of God, who guides the course of history, has set down the Chair of His Vicar on earth, in this city of Rome which, from being the capital of the wonderful Roman Empire, was made by Him the capital of the whole world, because He made it the seat of a sovereignty which, since it extends beyond the confines of nations and states, embraces within itself all the peoples of the whole world. The very origin and divine nature of this sovereignty demands, the inviolable rights of conscience of millions of the faithful of the whole world demand that this sacred sovereignty must not be, neither must it ever appear to be, subject to any human authority or law whatsoever, even though that law be one which proclaims certain guaranties for the liberty of the Roman Pontiff.

Source: Pope Pius XI, Encyclical Letter UBI ARCANO DEI CONSILIO (On the Peace of Christ in the Kingdom of Christ), December 23, 1922.

Note the remarkable wording used by Pius XI. He boldly claims sovereignty over all the people of the world from his “seat” in the city of Rome!  To use a well worn Catholic phrase, “Roma Locuta Est, Causa Finita Est” – Rome has spoken, the case is closed. We will continue to develop the extensive evidence, however.

The Lateran Basilica: The Cathedral of the Bishop of Rome

Luke 4:6-7 (KJV): 6 And the devil said unto him, All this power will I give thee, and the glory of them: for that is delivered unto me; and to whomsoever I will I give it. 7 If thou therefore wilt worship me, all shall be thine.

Rev 13:2 (KJV): … and the dragon [the Devil / Satan  (Rev 12:9) thru pagan Rome] gave him (papal Rome) his power, and his seat (cathedra), and great authority.

A few minutes of researching in most any library will reveal that the official “cathedra” or seat of authority for the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, is not in St. Peter’s Basilica, but it is actually in the apse of  St. John Lateran Cathedral, which is a short distance to the southeast of the Coliseum and Roman Forum, on the opposite side of Rome from St. Peter’s. Located on the Coelian (Celio/Cælian) Hill, one of the seven hills of Rome (Rev 17:9), St. John Lateran dates back to Rome’s emperor Constantine, who donated the building to the Bishop of Rome in the 4th century. It is the oldest church in Christendom and so lays claim to the title of the “mother church of the world”.

The Catholic Encyclopedia

The chair-throne of a bishop is always located in the sanctuary against the left wall on the gospel side in the cathedral church of the diocese. Cathedra is the Greek word for a chair or throne, from which is derived the word cathedral.

Lateran Church
   Officially, the Church of our Most Holy Savior, called St. John Lateran, is the Cathedral of the bishop of Rome, the pope. It is considered the mother church of the Christian world. The basilica, part of a donation of the Laterani family, was presented to the Church in 311. It is the oldest of the Christian basilicas and from historic times was known as Constantine’s basilica.

Source: The Catholic Encyclopedia, edited by Robert C. Broderick, Imprimatur of the Most Reverend William E. Cousins, Archbishop of Milwaukee, Nihil Obstat of the Reverend Richard J. Sklba, published by Thomas Nelson Publishers, copyright 1976, pages 98, 340.
St. John Lateran Cathedral
Mother Church and Official Seat of the Bishop of Rome

Constantine must have given it [the Lateran] to the Church in the time of Miltiades, not later than about 311, for we find council against the Donatists meeting within its walls as early as 313. From that time onwards it was always the centre of Christian life within the city; the residence of the popes and the cathedral of Rome. The latter distinction it still holds, though it has long lost the former.

Source: 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia, article on St. John Lateran.
A statue of the woman (fides) holding a cup (Rev 17:4) on top of St. John Lateran
Pope Pius XI, Bishop of Rome, enthroned on his cathedra in the Lateran apse.

Photo of the Bishop of Rome’s throne / cathedra in the apse of St. John Lateran

Pope Benedict XVI, formally took possession of St. John Lateran and enthroned himself on his cathedra of power and authority for the first time on May 7th, 2005. His homily discussed the significance of the event. Pope Francis took possession of the Bishop of Rome’s cathedra on April 7, 2013.

Since 1377, upon the return to Rome from Avignon, Church administration has been located in the Vatican, rather than the Lateran. However, as the cathedra (official seat) of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, the Lateran is today still considered to be extraterritorially a part of the Vatican City-State, as is the basilica Santa Maria Maggiore (St. Mary Major), which is located on Esquiline Hill. This is the result of a treaty (Concordat) signed with the Italian state in 1929 at the Lateran, which restored the diplomatic status of the Vatican as an independent city-state, which had been lost in 1860-1870 when Italy seized all papal territories. See Lateran Treaty – Article 13.

Vatican State, City of
    The capital city of the Vatican State, which includes the principle territory of the surrounding city of Rome, was recognized as sovereign land of the Roman Catholic Church by the Lateran Treaty. It includes the Vatican palace, its gardens, the basilica and piazza of St. Peter’s, and other official buildings on a plot of land about one square mile with approximately 1000 residents, all of whom are citizens. It is properly called the papal state and is governed by the Pope as the sovereign ruler with executive, legislative and judicial powers exercised through commissions or delegated groups. There are other properties fixed by the treaty not adjoining Vatican State yet under its sovereign dominion. These are the basilicas and buildings of St. John Lateran [Coelian hill], St. Mary Major [Esquiline hill], St. Paul-outside-the-Walls [~2 km South of Rome], and the Holy Apostles [Quirinal hill], and the churches of Saint Andrea-della-Valle [NE of Campo De’ Fiore] and San Carlo-ai-Catinari [SE of Campo De’ Fiore] with their adjoining buildings, the palace of San Callisto [Palazzo S. Callisto,Trastevere] and the papal summer residence, Castel Gandolfo [Alban Hills, ~20 km SE of Rome].

Source: The Catholic Encyclopedia, edited by Robert C. Broderick, Imprimatur of the Most Reverend William E. Cousins, Archbishop of Milwaukee, Nihil Obstat of the Reverend Richard J. Sklba, published by Thomas Nelson Publishers, copyright 1976, page 598.

Also seized in 1870 by Italy but not returned by the Lateran treaty, was the grand  Quirinal papal palace built on Quirinal hill (the highest of the 7 hills of Rome) beginning in 1574. It was the official residence for some 30 Popes until its seizure by Italy, when the Palazzo del Quirinale became the official residence of the kings of Italy, and since 1947 the residence of the presidents of Italy.

Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano
Santa Maria Maggiore
Quirinal Palace
Church of the Holy Apostles (Santi Apostoli) – in the lower left of the photo, Quirinal Palace is in the center.
Rome’s General Map
Vatican City State (the Holy See)

So even today, official Vatican territorial sovereignty extends across the Tiber into various parts of the city of Rome. It can even be said that the Vatican literally straddles, or sits over the seven-hilled city of Rome (Rev 17:9)! In fact, the term Holy See, which refers to the universal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome, is derived from the Latin Sancta Sedes, which means Holy Chair. Synonymous terms are Apostolic See, Roman Church, or Roman Curia. Holy See

More Catholic Attempts at Rebuttal

Note what a Catholic “expert” at EWTN has said on this subject, to refute Protestant claims that the Catholic Church is described in the book of Revelation:

Copyright 1999 by EWTN … “The seven heads represent seven hills on which the woman sits.” First of all, no Pope has ever lived or had his “seat” (cathedra or cathedral) on any of the seven hills of Rome. These hills are small hillocks (Capitoline, Palatine, Esquiline, Aventine and three lesser “bumps” in central Rome) where the religion and government of pagan Rome was situated. The Catholic Church’s headquarters at the Lateran (the cathedral) and at the Vatican (where the Pope lives) does not coincide with them.” …
Quoted from Whore of Babylon by Colin B. Donovan, STL,
in the Frequently Asked Questionssection of EWTN’s site.

Mr. Donovan needs to investigate one of those lesser bumps (the Cælian), and St. John Lateran Cathedral a bit more closely. I dare say that most any encyclopedia’s articles and maps on Rome and the Lateran will reveal the error of his statement. With that kind of “expert” answer on a prominent Catholic web site, it is no wonder that most Catholics don’t know the truth on this subject. But the truth is available even on EWTN’s own site:


June Hager
Christendom’s earliest basilica and home of the Popes for a thousand years St. John Lateran on the Caelian Hill.

St. John Lateran is Christendom’s earliest basilica. Ordered by Rome’s first Christian Emperor, Constantine the Great, it became the Popes’ own cathedral and official residence for the first millennium of Christian history. …

… Henceforth, the Lateran palace, known as the Patriarchate, was the Pope’s official residence until the fifteenth century. …

Source: February 1996 issue of Inside the Vatican.

See this current map of Rome online. On this map the name of mount Celio appears to the left of the Lateran, below the Coliseum.

Now back to Patrick Madrid’s book Pope Fiction, which makes this attempt at rebuttal on this point:

Some desperate to salvage this argument, claim that because the cathedral church and official seat of the bishop of Rome is St. John Lateran (which does fall within the bounds of Old Rome), the Catholic Church still fits the bill as being based in Rome.
You’ve got to give these folks an “A” for effort. Even though this variation on the theme fails, too, the people who promote it are nothing if not tenacious. The problem with this argument is that a cathedral is a church building, not a city. You can’t mix and match biblical symbols to make them fit your own particular interpretive system; that does violence to the text. And, of course, even this last claim still fails to account for the leap from a city to a religion (which the identification of Catholicism with the Whore of Babylon must make, for it to work).

Source: Pope Fiction, by Patrick Madrid, (Fiction #7), ISBN 0-9642610-0-6, copyright 1999 Basilica Press, page 103.

I am not desperate, and don’t feel the need to try and salvage anything. I am quite confident and willing let the reader judge the weight of the facts presented in this article, and who gets the “A”, and who fails completely in their arguments which are composed of half truths and misinformation.

As mentioned above, St. John Lateran, the cathedra (seat of authority) of the Bishop of Rome, the Pope, has been formally recognized by the 1929 treaty with Italy to be extra territorially a part of the Vatican City-State. Consequently, the Pope officially reigns from St. John Lateran, which is on one of the famous seven hills of Rome, the Cælian, and it is also a part of the Vatican City-State.

From a City to a Religion

Mat 23:37 O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not!

Can a city represent a religion? How difficult is it to see that the city of Jerusalem did not literally kill the prophets of God? As the city of old Jerusalem was used to symbolize Judaism, the New Jerusalem is used symbolically to represent the faithful saints of God:

Rev 21:2 And I John saw the holy city, new Jerusalem, coming down from God out of heaven, prepared as a bride adorned for her husband.

In opposition to the New Jerusalem, the eternal city of the saints, scripture describes a great city of seven hills, Rome. Rome is also symbolically called Babylon in prophecy, representing apostate religion:

Roman Catholics Admit
Babylon Is A New Testament Symbol For Rome

1 Pet 5:13 The church that is at Babylon, elected together with you, saluteth you; and so doth Marcus my son.

Babylon in the above verse is widely recognized as a code word meaning Rome, not Babylon, since there is no evidence that Peter ever ministered in Babylon. Roman Catholics have even acknowledged this association:

“Babylon,” from which Peter addresses his first Epistle, is understood by learned annotators, Protestant and Catholic, to refer to Rome – the word Babylon being symbolic of the corruption then prevailing in the city of the Caesars.

Source: Faith of Our Fathers, by James Cardinal Gibbons, 111th printing, Published by TAN Books and Publishers, INC., P.O. Box 424, Rockford, Illinois 61105, Copyright 1980, page 87.

“But the Bible never says Peter was in Rome.”

But the Bible does. While there were many things that happened connected with Jesus and the Apostles that are not written in the Bible (see Jn 21:25), Peter’s presence in Rome is confirmed by it. In his first epistle Peter closes by saying “She who is at Babylon, who is likewise chosen, sends you greetings; so does my son Mark” (5:13). “She who is chosen” refers to the Church in Rome. “Babylon is a Christian code word for Rome and the Roman Empire. Examine Revelation 17:5 where the author uses Babylon — mother of harlots and the earth’s abomination, drunk on the blood of Christian martyrs — in this sense. At the time Peter was writing, Babylon was no longer a great city but a deserted relic of mud huts.

Source: Answering a Fundamentalist, by Albert J. Nevins, published by Our Sunday Visitor, Inc., copyright 1990, ISBN 0-87973-433-7, Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 90-60644, page 46.

But Boettner is wrong when he claims “there is no allusion to Rome in either of [Peter’s] epistles”. There is, in the greeting at the end of the first epistle. “The church here in Babylon, united with you by God’s election, sends you her greeting, and so does my son, Mark.” (1 Peter 5:13). Babylon is a code word for Rome. It is used that way six times in the last book of the Bible … Eusebius Pamphilius, writing about 303, noted that “it is said that Peter’s first epistle, in which he makes mention of Mark, was composed at Rome itself; and he himself indicates this, referring to the city figuratively as Babylon.” [Historia ecclesiastica  2, 15, 4.]

Source: Catholicism and Fundamentalism, by Karl Keating, copyright 1988, published by Ignatius Press, San Francisco, ISBN 0-89870-195-3, library of Congress number 87-82939, page 200.

So anxious are the Catholics to place Peter in Rome, that they are willing to permanently brand Rome with the symbolic title of Babylon in the New Testament. Indeed, I would venture to say that every Roman Catholic Bible published has a footnote identifying Babylon in 1 Peter 5:13 as actually meaning Rome. Regarding references to Babylon in Revelation 14:8, 16:19, 17:5, 18:2, 10, and 21; note the following:

“These references cannot be to the onetime capital of the Babylonian Empire. That Babylon had been reduced to an inconsequential status by the march of years, military defeat, and political subjugation; it was no longer a ‘great city’. It played no important part in the recent history of the ancient world. The only truly ‘great city’ in New Testament times was Rome.”

Source: Ibid, page 201.

The city of seven hills, Rome, symbolically called Babylon in the New Testament, is where a harlot woman (apostate Christian church) rules (sits) over many people.

The Universal Church.

The woman of Revelation 17 sits on many waters, representing authority over many people:

Rev 17:15 And he saith unto me, The waters which thou sawest, where the whore sitteth, are peoples, and multitudes, and nations, and tongues.

The word Catholic means Universal. So the Roman Catholic Church is claiming to be the Universal or Worldwide Christian Church, a claim of authority over all the Christians of the world.

The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope. The Bishop of Rome, as the successor of St. Peter, is the Vicar of Christ on earth and the visible head of the Catholic Church. Rome is consequently the centre of unity in belief, the source of ecclesiastical jurisdiction and the seat of the supreme authority which can bind by its enactments the faithful throughout the world.

Source: Rome, The Catholic Encyclopedia Online.

The above papal medal of Pius XII, minted in the 11th year of his reign, symbolizes the Catholic church as a queen, pompously seated on her throne, from which she claims to uphold truth and justice. This depiction bears a remarkable resemblance to the following verse describing Mystery Babylon:

Rev 18:7 How much she hath glorified herself, and lived deliciously, so much torment and sorrow give her: for she saith in her heart, I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow.

Reigning Over the Kings of the Earth.

The woman of Revelation 17 claims authority over all the kings of the earth:

Rev 17:18 And the woman which thou sawest is that great city, which reigneth over the kings of the earth.

The Pontiff of the Roman Catholic Church historically claims authority over all secular rulers, and has exercised that assumed authority by deposing kings or queens who did not acknowledge the Pope’s superior secular and ecclesiastical authority.

Here are just a few examples of this claimed authority over Kings:

There are two powers, august Emperor, by which this world is chiefly ruled, namely, the sacred authority of the priests and the royal power. Of these that of the priests is the more weighty, since they have to render an account for even the kings of men in the divine judgment. You are also aware, dear son, that while you are permitted honorably to rule over human kind, yet in things divine you bow your head humbly before the leaders of the clergy and await from their hands the means of your salvation. In the reception and proper disposition of the heavenly mysteries you recognize that you should be subordinate rather than superior to the religious order, and that in these matters you depend on their judgment rather than wish to force them to follow your will.

Letter of Pope Gelasius I to Emperor Anastasius on the superiority of the spiritual over temporal power, 494 A.D.

From Pope Gregory VII, Dictatus Papae, 1090 A.D.  

9. That of the pope alone all princes shall kiss the feet.
12. That it may be permitted to him to depose emperors.

1. … the Roman Pontiff, who rules the offices of God and our Lord Jesus Christ on earth and who holds the fullness of power over kingdoms and kings, and who judges all, and by no one at this time is judged, …

Cum Ex Apostolatus Officio, Papal Bull of Pope Paul IV – February 15, 1559.

Pope Innocent III on Empire and Papacy
‘The Moon and the Sun’ Sicut universitatis conditor.
i, 401, October 1198  P.L. ccxiv. 337. Mirbt, no. 326

The creator of the universe set up two great luminaries in the firmament of heaven; the greater light to rule the day, the lesser light to rule the night. In the same way for the firmament of the universal Church, which is spoken of as heaven, he appointed two great dignities; the greater to bear rule over souls (these being, as it were, days), the lesser to bear rule over bodies (those being, as it were, nights). These dignities are the pontifical authority and the royal power. Furthermore, the moon derives her light from the sun, and is in truth inferior to the sun in both size and quality, in position as well as effect. In the same way the royal power derives its dignity from the pontifical authority: and the more closely it cleaves to the sphere of that authority the less is the light with which it is adorned; the further it is removed, the more it increases in splendor.

The Statement of the Papal Claim by Innocent III

Decretal Venerabilem, March 1202, Corpus Iuris Canonici, (Friedberg) II. 80. Mirbt, 323

[A letter from Innocent to the Duke of Zähringen justifying his intervention in a disputed election of the kingship of the Romans.]

… We acknowledge, as we are bound, that the right and authority to elect a king (later to be elevated to the Imperial throne) belongs to those princes to whom it is known to belong by right and ancient custom; especially at this right and authority came to them from the Apostolic See, which transferred the Empire from the Greeks to the Germans in the person of Charles the Great. But the princes should recognize, and assuredly do recognize, that the right and authority to examine the person so elected king (to be elevated to the Empire) belongs to us who anoint, consecrate and crown him. For it is a generally observed rule that the examination of a person belongs to him who has the duty of the laying-on of hands. For suppose that the princes elected a sacrilegious man or an excommunicate, a tyrant or an imbecile, a heretic or a pagan; and that not just by a majority, but unanimously, are we bound to anoint, consecrate and crown such a person? Of course not….
And it is evident from law and custom that when in an election the votes of the princes are divided we may, after due warning and a fitting interval, favour one of the parties…. For if after such due notice the princes cannot or will not agree, will not the Apostolic See be without an advocate and defender, and thus be punished for their fault?

Extract from Gregory VII’s Letter to the Bishop of Metz,
1081 Doeberl, op. cit. iii. 40 sqq. Mirbt, No. 297

… who can doubt but that the priests of Christ are to be considered the fathers and masters of kings and princes and of all the faithful? …

… For, indeed, one can see how the necks of kings and princes are bowed before the knees of priests; and how, having kissed their right hands, they believe themselves strengthened by their prayers. …

Furthermore every Christian King, when he comes to die, seeks as a pitiful supplicant the aid of a priest, that he may escape hell’s prison, may pass from the darkness into the light, and at the judgment of God may appear absolved from the bondage of his sins. Who, in his last hour (what layman, not to speak of priests), has ever implored the aid of an earthly king for the salvation of his soul? And what king or emperor is able, by reason of the office he holds, to rescue a Christian from the power of the devil through holy baptism, to number him among the sons of God, and to fortify him with the divine unction? Who of them can by his own words make the body and blood of our Lord, – the greatest act in the Christian religion? Or who of them possesses the power of binding and loosing in heaven and on earth? From all of these considerations it is clear how greatly the priestly office excels in power.
Who of them can ordain a single clerk in the holy Church, much less depose him for any fault? For in the orders of the Church a greater power is needed to depose than to ordain. Bishops may ordain other bishops, but can by no means depose them without the authority of the apostolic see. Who, therefore, or even moderate understanding, can hesitate to give priests the precedence over kings? Then, if kings are to be judged by priests for their sins, by whom can they be judged with better right than by the Roman Pontiff?

The source for the above examples of papal claims of authority over kings is from Documents of the Christian Church, Second Edition, selected and Edited by Henry Bettenson, Copyright by Oxford University Press 1963, ISBN 0-19-501293-3, pages 106-108, 112-113.

On the above papal medal (Mazio 13, Spink 342) issued by Pope Callistus III (1455-58), the reverse side reads OMNES REGES SERVIENT EI, a quote of Daniel 7:27 from the Latin Vulgate, which when translated in the Catholic Douay Rheims reads “ALL KINGS SHALL SERVE HIM”. The scripture refers to God, but the papal triple-tiered tiara portrayed above the cross clearly symbolizes papal authority, that the papacy is God’s designated representative, having authority even over the kings of the earth, just as the above excerpts show.


Jezebel was the daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians (1 Ki 16:31). The name Ethbaal means man of Baal (H854 + H1168), and Jezebel means woman of Baal (H802 + H1168).

1 Ki 16:30 And Ahab the son of Omri did evil in the sight of the LORD above all that were before him.
1 Ki 16:31 And it came to pass, as if it had been a light thing for him to walk in the sins of Jeroboam the son of Nebat, that he took to wife Jezebel the daughter of Ethbaal king of the Zidonians, and went and served Baal, and worshipped him.
1 Ki 16:32 And he reared up an altar for Baal in the house of Baal, which he had built in Samaria.
1 Ki 16:33 And Ahab made a grove; and Ahab did more to provoke the LORD God of Israel to anger than all the kings of Israel that were before him.

Now note this passage in Revelation 2:

Rev 2:20 Notwithstanding I have a few things against thee, because thou sufferest that woman Jezebel, which calleth herself a prophetess, to teach and to seduce my servants to commit fornication, and to eat things sacrificed unto idols.
Rev 2:21 And I gave her space to repent of her fornication; and she repented not.
Rev 2:22 Behold, I will cast her into a bed, and them that commit adultery with her into great tribulation, except they repent of their deeds.
Rev 2:23 And I will kill her children with death; and all the churches shall know that I am he which searcheth the reins and hearts: and I will give unto every one of you according to your works.

In prophecy a woman represents a church, and Jezebel here represents the apostate church, who has taught corrupted doctrine, which is described as fornication, just as in Revelation 17:

Rev 17:1 And there came one of the seven angels which had the seven vials, and talked with me, saying unto me, Come hither; I will show unto thee the judgment of the great whore that sitteth upon many waters:
Rev 17:2 With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.

Now, pay close attention to this …
The apostate church in Revelation 2:20 (Jezebel, the woman of Baal) calls herself a prophetessso by her own admission she is linked with prophecy!


The Two Choices Proposed by Roman Catholics

Note the following comments by two eminent Roman Catholic Cardinals:

Now a system like this [Roman Catholicism] is so unlike anything human, it has upon it notes, tokens, marks so altogether supernatural, that men now acknowledge it to be either Christ or Antichrist. There is nothing [pg. 172] between these extremes. Most true is this alternative. The Catholic Church is either the masterpiece of Satan or the kingdom of the Son of God.

Source: Henry Edward Manning, Archbishop of Westminster, The Fourfold Sovereignty of God, London, Burns, Oates & Company, 17, 18 Portman Street, and 63 Paternoster Row, 1871, pgs. 171-172. (Archbishop Manning was elevated to Cardinal in 1875.)

And another serious question is this, whether we ought not to be very sure before we assert that a branch of Christ’s Church, not merely has evil extensively prevailing within it, but is actually the kingdom of evil, the kingdom of God’s enemy; considering that, if it be not the [pg. 116] kingdom of darkness, it is the Church, the dwelling-place of the Most High. The question really lies, be it observed, between those two alternatives, either the Church of Rome is the house of God or the house of Satan; there is no middle ground between them.

[pg. 173] A sacerdotal order is historically the essence of the Church; if not divinely appointed, it is doctrinally the essence of Antichrist.

Source: Cardinal John Henry Newman, Essays Critical & Historical, Volume II, London, Longmans, Green & Co., and New York, 15 East 16th Street, New Edition, 1891, pgs. 115, 116, 173.

[pg. 393] And a still further serious reflection is this, whether we ought not to be very sure before we assert, that a branch of Christ’s Church not merely has evil extensively prevailing within it, but is actually the kingdom of evil, the kingdom of God’s enemy; considering that, if it be not the kingdom of darkness, it is the Church, the dwelling-place of the Most High. The question lies, be it observed, between these two alternatives, either the Church of Rome is the house of God or the house of Satan; there is no medium.

[pg. 432] A sacerdotal order is historically the essence of the Church; if not divinely appointed, it is doctrinally the essence of Antichrist.

Source: THE BRITISH CRITIC, AND QUARTERLY THEOLOGICAL REVIEW, VOLUME XXVIII, LONDON: PRINTED FOR J. G. F. & J. RIVINGTON, St. Paul’s Church-yard, And Waterloo-place, Pall-mall; AND SOLD BY BELL AND BRADFUTE, EDINBURGH; AND MILLIKEN, DUBLIN. ,  Art. V.—Discourses on the Prophecies relating to Antichrist in the Writings of Daniel and St. Paul, preached before the University of Dublin, at the Donnellan Lecture, 1838. By James Henthorn Todd, B. D„ M. R. I. A., Fellow of Trinity College, and Treasurer of St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin. London: Rivingtons. 1840, pgs. 393 & 432.

I believe this essay makes the true choice quite evident.


The Vatican (STATO DELLA CITTÁ DEL VATICANO), which means City-State of prophecy, is the woman of Revelation 17, Jezebel, the apostate harlot, the mother universal church, the persecutor of the saints that sits on seven hills in Rome and claims authority over the kings of the earth.

The Catholic Origins of Futurism and Preterism
Papal Claims To Authority

A Catholic rebuttal by Theodore Seeber.

While not specifically written in response to all the facts presented in this article, here are two attempts at rebuttals of Protestant claims on Rev 17 online at Catholic Answers:
“Hunt-ing” the Whore of Babylon and  The Whore of Babylon.

We need to be careful

As Christians we are held to a higher standard than the rest of this sinful world.
That is because our life is suppose to reflect our faith and belief in a risen savior.
All to often the opposite happens, we allow ourselves to be guided and directed by this old world.
We wink, smirk, and laugh at sin and wrongdoing instead of standing against it.
Those once who could be considered faithful are now standing among the unfaithful.

The scripture warns that our enemies will be those of our own household, family and friends.

Brethren, we need to be careful in whom we trust un this old world; of course our trust is in Jesus, but in this world we trust other humans. In business, with finances, with spiritual matters, in most things we trust someone.
Here we need to take caution by the hand, because when persecution arrives at our doorstep there may well be few hands there to grasp for care.
Give your trust sparingly and always with caution in the coming days.

GOD Bless.